On The Fabric of The Human Body

  Introduction by Vivian Nutton

Historical Introduction

The Man

The Book

The impact

Conclusion

Select Bibliography

To the Divine Charles V, the Mightiest and Most Unvanquished Emperor: Andreas Vesalius’ PREFACE to his books On the Fabric of the Human Body

PRINTER’S NOTE TO THE READER [Vesalius's instructions to the printer]

  Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them]

  Chapter 1 The Nature, Use, and Diversity of Bone

The nature and use of bone

Differentiation of bones by use

Size and shape

Varieties based upon epiphyses, processes, heads, etc.

Cartilage

Varieties of substance and structure

In what part of the bones marrow is located

Differences in foramina

Variety based upon sensation

Differentiation by the membrane enclosing the bones

  Chapter 2 The Nature, Use, and Varieties of Cartilage

The nature of cartilage

Its use, similar to the ordinary use of bones

Cartilage is easier to contract and expand than bone

The use of cartilage in joints

A third cartilage in certain joints

Cartilage as a glue

Cartilage in the substance of ligaments

Erectile cartilages

Cartilages attached to parts that stand erect

Varieties of cartilage

  Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified

[Illustrations of Chapter 3]

KEY TO THE FIGURE ILLUSTRATIONS

Kw=lon: limb, member

E)pi/fusij: epiphysis

The epiphyses are not covers of the cavities containing marrow

Large bones are not the only ones with epiphyses

A)po/fusij: process

Varieties of processes and epiphyses

The function of processes

Korw/nh

Kefalh/, kefa/laion: the head; prominences and depressions of the head.

A)/rqron: joint

Vertebrum, vertebra, spo/nduloj

Types of head

Ko/nduloj or Condyle

Tra/xhloj, a)uxh/n: neck, cervix

Kotu/lh, o)cu/bafon: acetabulum, socket, etc.

Glh/nh or glenoid depression

The function of depressions and heads

Types of cavity

I)/tuej, o)fruej, a)/mbonej, xei/lh: brows, lips

Baqmi/dej: hollows

Depressions not made for joints

  Chapter 4 On the Structural Relationships of Bones

[Introduction to Chapter 4]

Man is made with many bones for the sake of motion

For the movement of expiration

To withstand hardship

For the variety of the parts

PLAN OF THE CONNECTIONS THAT JOIN BONES

a)/rqron, joint. Visible motions: dia/rqrwsij

Obscure motions

suna/rqrwsij or coarticulation

Not all joints move in the same way

Three forms of joint

E)na/rqrwsij: Enarthrosis

Arthrodia

When Nature formed arthrodia

Ginglymus

When Nature formed ginglymus

In what ways double joints are formed

Gomphosis

afh/: Suture

Harmonia

Symphysis

Substances that aid the union of bones: Ligaments

Flesh: syssarcosis

Cartilage: synchondrosis

Bones that are joined with the aid of no substance

Some major disagreements in this chapter with the opinions of Galen

Appendix: Ginglymus (the hinge joint, 1555 version)

  Chapter 5 The Structure of the Head: Why It Is Shaped As It Is, and How Many Configurations It Has

[Introduction to Chapter 5]

The head was formed for the sake of the eyes

How Nature protected the eyes

The brain is located in the head for the sake of the eyes, and the other senses on account of the brain.

The natural shape of the head

First, Second, and Third Unnatural shapes

Fourth Unnatural Shape

Other variations

APPENDIX A: Natural Shapes of the Skull: 1555 version

APPENDIX B: Variant shapes of the head (end). Expanded 1555 version

  Chapter 6 On the Eight Bones of the Head and the Sutures Connecting Them

THE FIRST

THE SECOND figure.

THE THIRD figure of the sixth Chapter.

THE FOURTH figure of the sixth Chapter.

FIGURE LEGEND OF THE THIRD AND FOURTH FIGURES

FIFTH FIGURE OF CHAPTER SIX SHOWING THE BASE OF THE HEAD WITHOUT THE LOWER MAXILLA

FIGURE LEGEND

SIXTH FIGURE OF THE SIXTH CHAPTER

SEVENTH FIGURE OF THE SIXTH CHAPTER

FIGURE LEGEND OF THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH FIGURES

EIGHTH FIGURE OF THE SIXTH CHAPTER

What kind of dwelling Nature prepared for the brain.

Why the skull is not made of solid bone.

The use of sutures.

Sutures of the naturally shaped head.

The coronal, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures

The heads of men do not always differ from those of women.

Sutureless heads

Differences in bones of old, young, and juvenile persons.

Sutures in unnatural heads

The scaly seams of the temples

The sutures are visible also inside the skull

Why squamous agglutinations do not resemble the other sutures.

Sutures already accounted for.

The suture surrounding the eighth bone of the head.

Sutures between the head and other bones.

Extensions of the lambdoid suture .

The edge of the cuneiform bone

In what places the suture around the cuneiform bone occurs

On a passage in Galen’s De ossibus; the suture between the frontal bone, the bones of the maxilla, and others.

The borders of the vertex bones .

The borders of the frontal bone

The softest and least dense part of the skull

The borders of the occipital bone

The thickest point of the occiput

Capitula of the occipital bone

The circumference of the temporal bones

Mammillary processes

The cavity of the temporal bone

The process resembling a writer’s stylus

The jugal process of the temporal bone

The cuneiform bone

The cuneiform bone is not perforated like a sponge

The winglike processes

The eighth bone of the head

A bone inside the canine skull

Appendix A: Why the entire brain is surrounded by bones, and why these vary and are connected chiefly by sutures (1555 edition, pp. 31-32)

Appendix B: On the occurrence of cohesive squamous joints instead of sutures (1555 edition, pp. 33-34)

Appendix C: The cuneiform or sphenoid bone (1555 pp. 39-41)

Appendix D: A cartilage or bone in the brain

  Chapter 7 On the Jugal Bone, and the Bones Resembling a Rock Outcropping

[Introductory]

Names are assigned to certain areas of bone as if they were entirely separate

The jugal bone

The use of the jugal bone

How Nature made provision for the temporal muscles

The mansorius muscle originates at the jugal bone

The bones resembling a rocky outcropping

  Chapter 8 On the Ossicles That Enter Upon the Construction of the Organ of Hearing

[Introduction to Chapter 8]

The cavity made for the organ of hearing, and the foramina extending into it

Nerves from the fifth pair to the organ of hearing

The anvil-like ossicle

The ossicle that is not unlike a small hammer

Comparison of the second ossicle to the femoral bone

The use of ossicles of the organ of hearing

Marcus Antonius Genua and Wolfgang Hervort, chiefly responsible for my undertaking and completion of this work

Appendix: 1555 version of the first 32 lines of the chapter 8 narrative (see note 6 above)

  Chapter 9 On the Twelve Bones of the Upper Maxilla, Including the Bones of the Nose

Index of the First Figure of the Ninth Chapter, and Its Characters

Second Figure of the Ninth Chapter

Index of the Second Figure and Its Characters

Why the maxilla consists of several bones, both hollow and light

Structural system of the maxillary bones.

Brief enumeration of the bones of the maxilla.

How many bones make up the eye socket

The first bone of the maxilla

The second maxillary bone

Third maxillary bone

Fourth maxillary bone

The fifth bone of the maxilla

The sixth bone of the maxilla

There are in all twelve bones of the upper maxilla

Not everything thus far stated in this chapter fits the opinions of Galen; some items are enumerated at the end of the chapter.

Appendix A: 1555 version of the first two paragraphs of the narrative section

Appendix B: How to distinguish the maxillary bones

  Chapter 10 On The Lower Maxilla

[Figures for Chapter 10]

Key to both figures of the tenth chapter, and their characters.

Man has the shortest jaw

The human jaw is made virtually from a single bone

Two processes on both sides of the maxilla

Picture of the special cartilage in the joint of the maxillae

Foramina of the maxilla

Alveoli of the teeth

Breadth, thinness, depressions, and rough spots in the posterior area of the jaw

  Chapter 11 On The Teeth, Which are also counted as bones

[Figures for Chapter 11]

Key to the Figure of the present Eleventh Chapter, and its Characters

The teeth have sensation

The distinction between teeth and the other bones

The number of teeth

The Canines

Molars

How teeth are fixed in the jaws

Roots of the teeth

The number of teeth sometimes varies

Wisdom teeth

Hollow space in teeth

Dental epiphyses

  Chapter 12 On The Foramina of the Head and the Upper Maxilla

Why a description of the foramina is undertaken

FIRST FIGURE OF CHAPTER XII

SECOND FIGURE OF THE TWELFTH CHAPTER

THIRD FIGURE OF THE TWELFTH CHAPTER,

FOURTH FIGURE OF THE TWELFTH CHAPTER

[Figure Legend]

Channels made to drain phlegm from the brain

Skull cavities accommodating vessels of the hard membrane

Small foramina scattered throughout the skull cavity

  Chapter 13 On the Bone Resembling the Greek Upsilon

[Figures of Chapter 13]

Key to Figures and Characters set forth here

Location and names of the hyoid bone

Middle ossicle of the hyoid bone

Lower sides of the hyoid bone

Superior sides and attached ossicles

How the hyoid bone is secured; its use

  Chapter 14 On the Spine and its Various Bones

Key to the Figure which Follows, and its Characters

Nature’s purpose in the creation of the spine: to provide support

To provide a path for the dorsal medulla, and at the same time be flexible

The reason for the large number of bones

The unequal size of the spinal bones and spinal cavity

Foramina made for putting forth nerves

The spines of the vertebrae

The cartilage growing near the tips of the spines

The transverse processes

Articulation of the vertebrae

That it was more suitable for the spine to bend forward

APPENDIX Vesalius’ 1555 version of the Chapter 14 narrative

  Chapter 15 On the Vertebrae of the Neck or Cervix

[Figures of Chapter 15]

Key to the Eleven Figures and Characters of the Fifteenth Chapter

Man was given a neck for the sake of the lungs

The seven vertebrae of the neck

Galen’s opinion about the motions of the head

A different opinion from Galen’s about the motions of the head

Joints made for movements of the head

Description of the occipital bone where it is articulated to the first vertebra

Description of the first cervical vertebra

The head is flexed forward and back over the first vertebra

The worthiest joint in the whole body

The remaining description of the first vertebra.

Depressions of the first vertebra that receive the protuberances of the second

The protuberances of the second vertebra

Dens of the second vertebra.

The joining of the dens with the first vertebra

The head with the first vertebra above the second

Why Nature did not wish the head to be simultaneously rotated and inclined to the sides over the first vertebra.

The head cannot be flexed forward and back over the second vertebra, nor be inclined to the side.

On what vertebrae lateral motion occurs

The foramen that transmits the second pair of nerves of the dorsal medulla to the posterior.

The spine of the six lower vertebrae of the neck

The second vertebra is larger than the several beneath

The nature of the transverse processes of the neck vertebrae.

Foramen of the transverse processes.

Nature of the ascending and descending processes.

Structure of the cervical vertebrae.

The number of processes.

The nature of foramina that transmit nerves laterally: (A) In the vertebrae of the neck.

(B) In the lumbar vertebrae.

(C) In the thoracic vertebrae.

Epiphyses of the vertebrae.

The vertebra is made of several bones in children.

Connections of the vertebrae in the elderly.

Appendix: the 1555 ending to Chapter 15

  Chapter 16 On the Vertebrae of the Thorax

[Figures of Chapter 16]

Key to the Four Present Figures and Their Letters

There are most often twelve thoracic vertebrae.

A vertebra is supported above and below by others.

Diversity in the bodies of thoracic vertebrae.

Diversity in the depressions to which the ribs are articulated.

Variety based upon the substance of the vertebrae

Variety based on the transverse processes

Varieties of the spine

The course of the spines

The course of the transverse processes

The difference between ascending and descending processes, and their system of articulation

How the lumbar vertebrae are articulated with each other

Why it was fitting that one vertebra be received on both sides in the middle of the spine

Number of processes of the thoracic vertebrae

  Chapter 17 On the Lumbar Vertebrae

[Figures of Chapter 17]

Key to the Three Figures of the Seventeenth Chapter and Their Characters

What the bodies of the lumbar vertebrae are like

The foramina

The transverse processes

The spine

Ascending processes

Descending processes

The extra process which Galen ascribes to the lumbar vertebrae

The hospitality of Giovanni Andrea Bianchi

Number of processes in the lumbar vertebrae

Appendix: the 1555 ending of Chapter XVII (See note 19 above)

  Chapter 18 On the Sacral Bone and the Coccyx

[Figures of Chapter 18]

Key to the three figures placed above and their characters

Fourth Figure Fifth Figure

The anatomical negligence and ignorance of physicians

Galen’s opinion about the sacrum and coccyx

Description of the simian and canine sacrum

Description of the canine coccyx

Description of the human sacrum

Foramina transmitting nerves in the sacrum

Spines of the sacrum

The nature of the anterior and posterior areas of the sacrum

An account of the coccyx

Those who contend Galen taught human anatomy are disrespectful toward him.

The reason for the name of the coccyx and sacrum

The 1555 Version of Chapter XVIII

  Chapter 19 On the Bones of the Thorax

Key to the seven figures of the nineteenth chapter

What the thorax is; the chest, and the pectoral bone

The diligence of the Maker of things in creating the thorax

Why the abdomen is not also bony

What Nature paid special attention to in constructing the thorax

The number of ribs

Men and women have the same number of ribs

Symmetry of body among the Ligurians

The substance and epiphysis of the ribs

The bony substance

Cartilaginous substance

Not all ribs are of equal length

Unequal breadth

Smoothness and roughness of the ribs; their sulcus

The rough tubercle of the ribs

Articulation of ribs to the vertebrae

Description of the pectoral bone in quadrupeds

Description of the human pectoral bone

Comparison of the pectoral bone to a sword

The pectoral bone is crescent-shaped on both sides

The substance of the pectoral bone

The use of the pectoral bone

The use of the pointed cartilage

The course of the ribs

  Chapter 20 On the Cartilaginous Substance Which Is Ascribed to the Base of the Heart, Or the Bone of the Heart

[Introduction]

The human heart has no bone

Cartilaginous substance of the heart

Anatomists’ errors

The fraudulence of physicians and druggists

  Chapter 21 On the Scapuli

[Figures and figure legend]

FOURTH FIGURE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CHAPTER

Position and attachments of the scapula

Use of the scapula

The triangular shape of the scapula

The base of the scapula

Epiphyses of the base

Cartilage of the base

Differences between the upper and lower sides

Three angles of the scapula; a fuller description of the sides

The neck of the scapula

The depression made to receive the humerus

The cartilage which often augments the socket of the scapula

Processes of the scapula

The inner process

The anterior surface of the scapula, next to the ribs

Posterior surface or dorsum of the scapula

The shoulder top or a)krw/mion, whose careful description must now be commenced

Cartilage peculiar to the joint of the clavicle with the upper process of the scapula

A third bone enumerated by Galen in the joint of the acromion with the clavicle

The only animals in which the upper process of the scapula exists

The use of the acromion

  Chapter 22 On the Clavicles

[Figures of Chapter 22]

Legend of the three preceding figures and their characters

Number of the clavicles

Their articulation to the pectoral bone

The special cartilage of the joint of the clavicle with the pectoral bone

The marvellous curvature of the clavicle

The use of curvature

Why the shoulder joint is kept away from the ribs; the use of the clavicle and acromion

The connection of the clavicle to the acromion

Composition, protuberances, rough and smooth places, and foramina of the clavicle

  Chapter 23 On the Humerus or Arm Bone

Index of Characters in the Two Figures of the Present Chapter

Humerus and Brachium

The humerus is not larger than all the bones after the femur, as Galen believes.

Description of the upper part of the humerus

Description of the lower part of the humerus

The errors of Aristotle and many others

Description of the middle parts of the humerus

  Chapter 24 On the Bones of the Forearm: the Ulna and Radius

[Figures of Chapter 24]

What the ten figures that we have placed in order beneath the first figure of this chapter represent, and index of all the characters inscribed on the eleven figures.

The forearm

Ulna and radius

Articulation of ulna to humerus: description of its depression and processes at this point

Articulation of the radius to the humerus

The motion of the ulna on the wrist; its lower area

What the ulna has along its length

The curvature of the radius

Articulation of the radius to the ulna

Smooth and rough surfaces on the length of the radius

Account of the lower part of the radius

Cartilage separating the carpus from the ulna

Depressions of the radius suited for transmitting and positioning muscles and their tendons.

  Chapter 25 On the Carpus

[Figures of Chapter XXV]

[Table describing the figures of Chapter XXV]

The carpus is constructed of eight bones differing from each other in shape

Where the carpus is covered with ligaments, and where by cartilage

Why there are two rows of carpal bones

Names of the carpal bones

Peculiarities claimed by the fourth bone

To what bone it is attached

To what row it should be assigned

How many bones are conterminous to the first wrist bone

How many bones are conterminous to the second

How many bones are conterminous to the third

How many bones are conterminous to the fifth

Connection of the first bone of the thumb and the metacarpal bones to the carpus

How many bones are conterminous to the sixth

Bones conterminous to the seventh

Bones conterminous to the eighth

The ossicle located at the joint of the fourth metacarpal bone with the carpus

The process of the eighth bone

The process of the fifth bone

  Chapter 26 On the Metacarpus

[Comments on the Figures of Chapter 26]

The term “postbrachial” is preferable

The metacarpus is counted as four bones by some, five by others

The character of the four metacarpal bones: length

Epiphyses

Their interconnection

The spaces between the metacarpals

Why the metacarpal bones give way to muscles

  Chapter 27 On the Digits of the Hand

[Figures of Chapter 27]

The fingers are rightly made up of three bones each

The just size of the bones

The fitting shape of bones and entire fingers

The system of articulation of the finger bones

Attachment of the first thumb bone to the carpus

The type of joint of the second thumb bone with the first, and its motions

The system of articulation of the third bone of the thumb with the second

The form of the first, second, and third joints of the four fingers

The flexible and elegant fingers of Giovanni Centurio

The small processes of the third finger bone

The digits are justly made five in number

The dignity of the fingers

Why the fingers are unequal

The thumb is handsomely situated

Appendix: the 1555 version of Chapter XXVII

  Chapter 28 On the Ossicles Which Resemble a Sesame Seed

[Introduction]

Where the sesamoid ossicles are located

In the Hand

The ossicles in the foot

An ossicle more familiar to magicians and followers of occult philosophy

Albadaran

Appendix The 1555 version of Chapter XXVIII

  Chapter 29 On the Bones Which Are Attached to the Sides of the Sacrum

Index of the three figures at hand and their characters (which will follow the order of their presentation in this chapter).

Ilium; Pubis; Hipbone

The use of the bones attached to the sides of the sacrum

The surface of the ilium attached to the sacrum

The part of the ilium extending behind the transverse processes of the sacrum

The epiphysis of the ilium: spine, back

Muscles occupying the epiphysis

Muscles occupying the inner space of the ilium

Depression carved in the upper part of the hipbone

Projections of the depression

How the strength of the hipbone is provided for

The line on the back of the ilium and the muscles which occupy it

The acetabulum provided to articulate the femur

The depression by which the thickest nerve in the body is conveyed

The acute process of the hipbone

The depression against which the tenth of the muscles that move the femur turns

Epiphysis of the hipbone

An account of the pubic bone

The difference between the attachment of bones to the sacrum in men and women

Why the pubic bone is pierced by a very large foramen; its depressions and convexities

The bones attached to the sides of the sacrum are made up of three bones in small children

  Chapter 30 On the Femur

Index of characters which will be used to mark the two figures of the present chapter on the following page.

The upper head of the femur

The two lower heads of the femur and their depression

Two processes, or rotators, of the femur

The shape of the femur along its length

  Chapter 31 On the Tibia and Fibula

[Figures of Chapter XXXI]

Index of the figures of the thirty-first chapter and their characters.

The lower leg: tibia

Fibula and tibia

Epiphyses of the tibia and fibula

Area where the femur is articulated to the tibia

Cartilages by which the socket of the tibia is enlarged

The connection of the fibula to the tibia

Where the fibula separates from the tibia

The depressions and eminences of the tibia, by which it is articulated to the talus

The inner malleolus

Articulation of the fibula with the talus

The talus is not exposed to touch before dissection

The outer malleolus

The unfleshed part of the fibula

The fibula is a triangle along its length

The shape of the tibia along its length

  Chapter 32 On the Patella

[First Figure of Chapter 32]

[Second Figure of Chapter 32]

Index of characters in the second figure

The situation and form of the patella

How the patella is connected to the femur

The substance of the patella

The use of the patella

  Chapter 33 On the Bones of the Foot

[Figures of Chapter 33]

Legend of the thirteen figures of the present chapter, and their characters.

The similarity of quadrupeds to humans in their legs and feet

THE TALUS

THE CALCANEUS

THE NAVICULAR BONE

THE TARSUS

AN ACCOUNT OF THE METATARSUS

THE DIGITS OF THE FOOT

  Chapter 34 On the Nails

[On the Usefulness of Fingernails]

Why the digits have nails

The nature of nails is rightful

Attachment of the nails

  Chapter 35 On the Cartilages of the Eyelids

[On Upright Eyelashes]

  Chapter 36 On the Cartilage of the Ear

[On the Mechanical Engineering Aspects of the Ear]

  Chapter 37 On the Cartilages of the Nose

[On the Difference Between Human and Dog Noses]

  Chapter 38 On the Cartilages of the Rough Artery, and What Therein Would Be Called by the Greeks Glottis and Epiglottis

THE FIRST FIGURE

THE SECOND FIGURE

Index of the thirteen figures which are set forth here in order, and their characters.

Where the nature of the rough artery will be thoroughly described

First laryngeal cartilage

Second laryngeal cartilage

Third laryngeal cartilage

Operculum of the larynx

Lingula of the larynx, or fissure and primary organ of the voice

The other cartilages of the rough artery, resembling the letter C

  Chapter 39 By What Method the Bones and Cartilages of the Human Body May Be Prepared for Inspection

A system for soaking bones in lime and then cleaning them in a stream

A way of preparing bones by cooking

What bones are most useful for teaching

How the cleaned bones should be joined

Appendix: Vesalius’ Bow Drill To Perforate Bones for Articulation

  Chapter 40 On the Number of Bones

[Introduction]

Appendix: 1555 Addition on the Number of Cartilages

Anterior Aspect of the Bones of the Human Body Assembled Together

Drawing of the Bones of the Human Body, Seen from the Side

Bones of the Human, Shown in the Posterior Aspect

Index of Characters placed on the three figures representing the entire skeleton

  Book Two -- All the ligaments and muscles, instruments of voluntary and deliberate motion

First Table of Muscles

Second Table of Muscles

Third Table of Muscles

Fourth Table of Muscles

Fifth Table of Muscles

Sixth Table of Muscles

Seventh Table of Muscles

Eighth Table of Muscles

Ninth Table of Muscles

Tenth Table of Muscles

Eleventh Table of Muscles

Twelfth Table of Muscles

Thirteenth Table of Muscles

Fourteenth Table of Muscles

Fifteenth Table of Muscles

Sixteenth Table of Muscles

Chapter 1 What is a Ligament: Its Function and Types

Chapter 2 What is a Muscle

Chapter 3 On the Varieties of Muscle

Chapter 4 On the Number of Muscles

Chapter 5 On the Skin, the Cuticle, the Membrane placed beneath the skin throughout the body, and the fat located between the skin and the fleshy membrane

Chapter 6 How the Nature of the Cuticle, Skin, Fat, and Fleshy Membrane Should Be Observed in Dissection

Chapter 7 On the Instruments That Can Be Obtained for Performing Dissections

Chapter 8 On the Muscle That Moves the Skin of the Forehead

Chapter 9 Dissection of the Muscle That Moves the Skin of the Forehead

Chapter 10 On the Muscles of the Eyelids

Chapter 11 On the Muscles of the Eye

Chapter 12 On the Dissection of the Eye Muscles

Chapter 13 On the Muscles of the Cheeks, Lips, and Alae of the Nose

Chapter 14 Dissection of the Muscles Moving the Cheeks, Lips, and Alae of the Nose

Chapter 15 On the Muscles Moving the Lower Maxilla

Chapter 16 Dissection of Muscles moving the Lower Maxilla

Chapter 17 On the Muscles attached to the Hyoid Bone

Chapter 18 Dissection of Muscles belonging to the Hyoid Bone

Chapter 19 On the Muscles of the Tongue

Chapter 20 Dissection of the Muscles of the Tongue

Chapter 21 On the Muscles of the Larynx

Chapter 22 Dissection of the Muscles of the Larynx

Chapter 23 On the Muscles moving the Humerus

Chapter 24 Dissection of the Muscles moving the Humerus

Chapter 25 On the Ligaments of the Shoulder Joint near the Scapula

Chapter 26 On the Muscles moving the Scapula

Chapter 27 Dissection of the Muscles moving the Scapula

Chapter 28 On the Muscles moving the Head

Chapter 29 Dissection of the Muscles moving the Head

Chapter 30 On the Ligaments of the first and second cervical Vertebrae

Chapter 31 On the Muscles of the Abdomen

Chapter 32 Dissection of the Muscles of the Abdomen

Chapter 33 On the Muscles of the male Testes and the female Uterus

Chapter 34 Dissection of the Muscles of the Testes

Chapter 35 On the Muscles moving the Thorax

Chapter 36 Dissection of the Muscles moving the Thorax

Chapter 37 On the Ligaments of the Thorax

Chapter 38 On the Muscles moving the Dorsum

Chapter 39 Dissection of the Muscles moving the Dorsum

Chapter 40 On the Ligaments of the Vertebrae

Chapter 41 On the Muscle attached by thin, sinewy tissue to the middle of the Vola and the inside of the Skin of the Fingers

Chapter 42 On the Fleshy Substance spread beneath the inner region of the digits, their roots, and the middle of the Vola

Chapter 43 On the Muscles moving the fingers

Chapter 44 On the Muscles that cause movements of the Carpus

Chapter 45 On the Muscles pronating and supinating the Radius

Chapter 46 On the Muscles flexing and extending the Forearm

Chapter 47 On the Ligaments situated between the Shoulder Joint and the End of the Fingers

Chapter 48 Dissection of the Muscles and Ligaments that occupy the upper and lower Arm and the Hand

Chapter 49 On the Muscles peculiar to the Penis

Chapter 50 On the Muscle of the Neck of the Bladder

Chapter 51 On the Muscles of the Rectum

Chapter 52 Dissection of the Neck of the Bladder and Muscles of the Anus

Chapter 53 On the Muscles moving the Lower Leg

Chapter 54 Dissection of the Muscles moving the Tibia

Chapter 55 On the Muscle hidden behind the Knee

Chapter 56 On the Muscles moving the Thigh

Chapter 57 Dissection of the Muscles moving the Thigh

Chapter 58 On the hidden Tendon attached to the Skin of the Sole

Chapter 59 On the Muscles moving the Foot

Chapter 60 On the Muscles moving the Toes

Chapter 61 On the Ligaments attaching the Iliac Bones to the Sacrum, those of the Hip and Knee joints, and all the others that are in the Tibia and the Foot

Chapter 62 Method of dissecting the Muscles located in the Tibia and the Foot, and all the others that have so far not been resected

  Book Three -- The series of veins and arteries throughout the body

Chapter 1 What is a Vein; its Makeup and Function

Chapter 2 What is an Artery; its Makeup and Function

Chapter 3 The Number of the Veins and Arteries

Chapter 4 On the Glandules assigned to the networks of Vessels for the sake of strength and attached to them

Chapter 5 The Origin and Branches of the Portal Vein

Chapter 6 How Branches of the Vena Cava in the Liver are attached to Branches of the Portal Vein, and how the Vena Cava exits the Liver or distributes branches into it

Chapter 7 Distribution of the part of the Vena Cava that stands above the Liver

Chapter 8 System of the Axillary and Humeral Vein through the upper and lower Arm and the Hand

Chapter 9 System of the portion of the Vena Cava distributed beneath the Transverse Septum

Chapter 10 Branches of the Vena Cava distributed into the Leg

Chapter 11 On the Vein of the Umbilicus

Chapter 12 Where the Great Artery begins, and the Branches into which its ascending part is divided

Chapter 13 Series of Branches of the larger, descending Trunk of the Great Artery

Chapter 14 The Cerebral Veins and Arteries

Chapter 15 On the Arterial Vein, and the Venous Artery

Complete and comprehensive Chart of all the Veins and Arteries

Chart combining several small Figures prepared to show a set of Veins and Arteries joined together, to be attached adjacent to the page marked “X” or numbered 505 [1555 edn. only]

  Book Four -- The nerves

Chapter 1 To what Parts of the body the name “Nerve” is given; what is properly called a Nerve, and how it varies and functions

Two figures common to the nine chapters that follow

Chapter 2 How many pairs of nerves originate from the brain and the portion of the dorsal medulla still located in the skull

Chapter 3 On the Olfactory Organ

Chapter 4 On the first pair of nerves originating from the brain

Chapter 5 On the Second Pair of Cerebral Nerves

Chapter 6 On the Third Pair of Cerebral Nerves

Chapter 7 On the Fourth Pair of Cerebral Nerves

Chapter 8 The Series of the Fifth Pair of Cerebral Nerves

Chapter 9 On the Sixth Pair of Cerebral Nerves

Chapter 10 On the Seventh Pair of Cerebral Nerves

First of three figures common to the following Chapters

Line illustration of the thirty pairs of nerves that originate from the dorsal medulla contained in the bones of the spine: the second of three figures common to the following chapters

Third of three figures common to the following chapters, showing the spinal bones in the posterior aspect . . . and the entire series of nerves from the dorsal medulla

Chapter 11 On the Dorsal Medulla and the number of nerves proceeding from it

Chapter 12 The Series of Seven Pairs of nerves exiting from the Cervical Vertebrae

Chapter 13 The Series of Twelve Pairs of nerves of the dorsal medulla contained in the Thoracic Vertebrae

Chapter 14 The Series of nerves through the upper and lower Arm and the Hand

Chapter 15 The Series of Five Pairs of nerves proceeding from the Lumbar Vertebrae

Chapter 16 The Series of nerves exiting from the Sacrum

Chapter 17 The System of Distribution of Nerves going to the Femur, Tibia, and Foot

Illustration of the nerves showing the origins of the seven pairs of nerves that arise from the cerebrum and the beginning of the dorsal medulla, and the distribution of all series that take their origin from the dorsal medulla contained in the spine

  Book Five -- The organs of nutrition and generation

First Figure of the Fifth Book

Second Figure of the Fifth Book

Third Figure of the Fifth Book

Fourth Figure of the Fifth Book

Fifth Figure of the Fifth Book

Sixth Figure of the Fifth Book

Seventh Figure of the Fifth Book

Eighth Figure of the Fifth Book

Ninth Figure of the Fifth Book

Tenth Figure of the Fifth Book

Eleventh Figure of the Fifth Book

Twelfth Figure of the Fifth Book

Thirteenth Figure of the Fifth Book

Fourteenth Figure of the Fifth Book

Fifteenth Figure of the Fifth Book

Sixteenth Figure of the Fifth Book

Seventeenth Figure of the Fifth Book

Eighteenth Figure of the Fifth Book

Nineteenth Figure of the Fifth Book

Twentieth Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-first Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-second Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-third Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-fourth Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-fifth Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-sixth Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-seventh Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-eighth Figure of the Fifth Book

Twenty-ninth Figure of the Fifth Book

Thirtieth Figure of the Fifth Book

Thirty-first Figure of the Fifth Book

Thirty-second Figure of the Fifth Book

Chapter 1 For Man to increase and live more prosperously, various instruments of nutrition were needed; what instruments were severally constructed for nutrition based upon food and drink

Chapter 2 On the Peritoneum

Chapter 3 On the Esophagus and the Stomach

Chapter 4 On the Omentum

Chapter 5 On the Intestines

Chapter 6 On the Mesentery

Chapter 7 On the Liver

Chapter 8 On the Bladder for Yellow Bile

Chapter 9 On the Spleen

Chapter 10 On the Kidneys

Chapter 11 On the Bladder, the receptacle for Urine, and the Vessels bringing it down from the kidneys to the bladder

Chapter 12 That Nature provided for the propagation of the species

Chapter 13 On the Organs in men serving generation

Chapter 14 On the Male Member and the structure of the penis

Chapter 15 On the Uterus and the other female organs serving generation

Chapter 16 On the Acetabula of the Uterus

Chapter 17 On the Involucra covering the fetus in the uterus

Chapter 18 On the Breasts

Chapter 19 Method of Dissecting all the organs described in this Book, and some general observations about the order of learning and teaching anatomy

  Book Six -- The heart and organs serving the heart [Chiefly the heart and lungs]

First Figure of the Sixth Book

Second Figure of the Sixth Book

Third Figure of the Sixth Book

Fourth Figure of the Sixth Book

Fifth Figure of the Sixth Book

Sixth Figure of the Sixth Book

Seventh Figure of the Sixth Book

Eighth Figure of the Sixth Book

Ninth Figure of the Sixth Book

Tenth Figure of the Sixth Book

Eleventh Figure of the Sixth Book

Twelfth Figure of the Sixth Book

Thirteenth Figure of the Sixth Book

Chapter 1 What parts the Maker of things constructed for refreshing the airy substance, and which ones severally aid the Vital Spirit

Chapter 2 On the Membrane covering the Ribs

Chapter 3 On the Membranes dividing the thoracic cavity

Chapter 4 On the Rough Artery

Chapter 5 On the Glandules of the Throat

Chapter 6 On the Uvula

Chapter 7 On the Lung

Chapter 8 On the Involucrum of the Heart

Chapter 9 On the Location and Shape of the Heart

Chapter 10 On the Tissue of the Heart

Chapter 11 On the Cavities or Ventricles of the Heart

Chapter 12 On the Vessels of the Heart and their Orifices

Chapter 13 On the Eleven small Membranes of the four orifices of the heart

Chapter 14 On the Auricles of the Heart

Chapter 15 The Function and Use of the Heart and of the Parts already mentioned; how they are constructed

Chapter 16 Method of Dissecting the heart, lungs, and other organs serving respiration

  Book Seven -- The brain and organs of sense

First Figure of the Seventh Book

Second Figure of the Seventh Book

Third Figure of the Seventh Book

Fourth Figure of the Seventh Book

Fifth Figure of the Seventh Book

Sixth Figure of the Seventh Book

Seventh Figure of the Seventh Book

Eighth Figure of the Seventh Book

Ninth Figure of the Seventh Book

Tenth Figure of the Seventh Book

Eleventh Figure of the Seventh Book

Twelfth Figure of the Seventh Book

Thirteenth Figure of the Seventh Book

Fourteenth Figure of the Seventh Book

Fifteenth Figure of the Seventh Book

Sixteenth Figure of the Seventh Book

Seventeenth Figure of the Seventh Book

Eighteenth Figure of the Seventh Book

Chapter 1 The Brain was constructed for the Animal Principle as well as for Sensation and Motion depending on our Volition

Chapter 2 On the Hard Membrane surrounding the brain and the Small Membrane covering the skull beneath the skin

Chapter 3 On the thin membrane surrounding the brain

Chapter 4 On the number, location, convolutions, and substance of the brain and the cerebellum

Chapter 5 On the Corpus Callosum of the brain, and the septum of the brain’s right and left ventricles

Chapter 6 On the Ventricles of the brain

Chapter 7 On the Cerebral Body resembling a tortoise shell or a vault

Chapter 8 On the Cerebral Gland resembling a pine seed

Chapter 9 On the Cerebral testes and buttocks

Chapter 10 On the Processes of the cerebellum resembling a worm, and the tendons containing them

Chapter 11 On the Infundibulum, the Glandule that receives cerebral phlegm, and the other ducts that purge it

Chapter 12 On cerebral networks, one of which is thought to be reticular, the other to resemble a network of subordinate vessels

Chapter 13 On the organ of Smell

Chapter 14 On the Eye, the instrument of Sight

Chapter 15 On the instrument of Hearing

Chapter 16 On the instrument of Taste

Chapter 17 On the instrument of Touch

Chapter 18 Method of dissecting the brain and all the organs described in this Book

Chapter 19 Some remarks on Vivisection

End of the Seventh and final Book