Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 38 On the Cartilages of the Rough Artery, and What Therein Would Be Called by the Greeks Glottis and Epiglottis

Third laryngeal cartilage [cartilago arytenoidea]

The Greeks called the third cartilage of the larynx (figs. 9, 10, 11; l in the figs. for ch. 21, Bk. 2) a)ru/taina and a)ru/tainoeidh/j, 14 because when it is still intact and still overlaid by the membrane or tunic [tunica mucosa] covering the inside of the rough artery, it would be very like that part of a pitcher with which we pour water for people washing their hands. It more closely resembles that part of the mouth of jugs than the wooden shell-shaped vessels with which we see sailors empty bilge-water, 15 or vegetable farmers water gardens. At any rate, if the Greeks seem to have compared this cartilage to vessels or small containers of this type 16 , it was not indeed to the entire vessel, but to its tip. 17 However that may be, all the professors of dissection have described the third cartilage of the larynx as single and simple, though at the same time when freed from its membranes, it is double: it is made up of two cartilages (R and S in figures 9, 10, 11), quite loosely joined together only by ligaments and the membrane surrounding the larynx. One of these rests upon the right side (Q, P in figs. 6, 7, 8) of the second cartilage, the other on the left [facies articularis arytenoidea], possessing a smooth and rather deeply engraved depression (V, X in figures 10, 11), by which it accepts the tubercle of the second cartilage; and so it is articulated so that it can be moved to the inner space of the larynx and then again away from it. This is the most mobile of all the cartilages of the larynx. The base of either cartilage is broad, and comes to an end on its anterior side in a long process (Y in figures 9 and 10) [processus vocalis] extending into the interior of the larynx. The upper parts of these cartilages (Z in figures 9, 10, 11) [cartilago corniculata dextra/sinistra ], 18 gradually draw apart from each other on each side from the base (T in figures 10 and 11) [incisura interarytenoidea], and then become thinner, softer, and fatty and are joined together; the upper part of the right cartilage, being joined to the corresponding part of the left cartilage, forms the area of the larynx (l in figs. 3, 9, 10, 11, ch. 21, Bk. 2) that is like the part of vases by which, we mentioned above, water is poured for the hands. Now in fact this part of the larynx is so soft and pliable that when people vomit it is bent forward into the inner space of the larynx and so perfectly covers the rough artery that not even the least of the vomit slips into the artery itself. Although this third cartilage is a twin constructed of two cartilages, we shall not for that reason count it as two cartilages; but it will be considered just a single cartilage by me as it is by the other anatomists, and will be called the third, so that I might not seem unfairly to confuse the opinions of those who have numbered the cartilages rather than described them.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 38 On the Cartilages of the Rough Artery, and What Therein Would Be Called by the Greeks Glottis and Epiglottis