Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 38 On the Cartilages of the Rough Artery, and What Therein Would Be Called by the Greeks Glottis and Epiglottis

Second laryngeal cartilage [cartilago cricoidea]

The second cartilage (figs. 6, 7, 8; i and k in the figures of ch. 21, Bk. 2) is smaller than the first and larger than the third [cartilago arytenoidea], and the greatest part of it is placed back in the posterior parts of the larynx where the food passage (H in figs. 2, 3, 5, ch. 21, Bk. 2; A-D in figs. 14-15, Bk. 5) (which we will call the stomachus with the Greeks 10 ) [esophagus] is brought downward from the pharynx.


For as much as the scutiform cartilage falls short of being a perfect figure of a circle, to that degree this second cartilage completes a circle in its superior and posterior part. In its lower part (K, L in figs. 6, 7) it completes a perfect circle whose anterior beneath the root of the scutiform cartilage we perceive by touch in the front of the larynx. The inner area (I in fig. 6) of this cartilage is perfectly smooth, while its posterior facing the gullet bulges in a long line [crista mediana] (L, M in fig. 8, M in fig. 7) following the longitude of the cartilage as if stretched out in the manner of a spine. 11 This separates the two recesses (N, O in fig. 8) of this cartilage in which are fixed two muscles (P in figs. 6, 7, ch. 21 Bk. 2) [musculi crico-arytenoidei posteriores] attached in a straight line from the second cartilage into the third. The superior surface of this cartilage, where it forms the posterior region of the larynx, comes to an end in two oblong tubercles [facies articulares arytenoideae] (P and Q in figs. 6, 7, 8), one on each side, which you will soon hear are articulated [art. cricoarytenoidea] into the depressions of the third cartilage (V, X in figure 10) [basis cartilaginis arytenoideae]. Also, this second cartilage is joined [art. cricothyroidea] to the first in the manner explained above, when I was saying that the lower processes of the first cartilage [cornua inferiora] join together with it. In order that the connection of these processes will be stronger, the second cartilage swells slightly (E and F in figure 8) at the point where the processes join it, and is thicker; in this protuberant part is seen the recess [facies articularis thyroidea]

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which receives the process of the first cartilage [c. thyroidea, cornu inferius] with great strength. The lower portion of the second cartilage (L in figures 6, 7, 8), where it forms the posterior of the larynx, appears quite thin, more stretched out below than the remaining area of its inferior part. This is so the muscles [mm. crico-arytenoidei posteriores] (P in fig. 6, ch. 21 Bk. 2) may take their beginning from a more remote area, stretched straight along the length of the second cartilage [c. cricoidea] and inserted into the third cartilage [c. arytenoidea]. To this second cartilage no name has been applied, and for this reason we shall call it by a special name, the innominate. But if someone carefully examined its appearance and wished to compare it to the shape of something and finally from that to give it a name, he would discover nothing more fitting to it than that ring of the Turks which they put on their right thumb when shooting the bow, so that with its aid they may pull the bowstring harder. 12 This ring, in the part where it faces the inside of the thumb, resembles the anterior surface [arcus cartilaginis cricoideae] of the second cartilage. But where it covers the outside of the thumb, it is quite like the posterior region [lamina cartilaginis cricoideae] of the second cartilage, as it is possible to see from the picture of a ring which I provide in the margin. 13



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 38 On the Cartilages of the Rough Artery, and What Therein Would Be Called by the Greeks Glottis and Epiglottis