Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 38 On the Cartilages of the Rough Artery, and What Therein Would Be Called by the Greeks Glottis and Epiglottis

First laryngeal cartilage [cartilago thyroidea]

This head of the rough artery (which I have thought preferable to call larynx rather than guttur) consists first of three cartilages, the first of which (all of figs. 3, 4, 5; g and h in the figures of ch. 40, Bk. 2) is the largest and broadest and is anterior, externally convex [prominentia laryngea] and hollow inside, somewhat like a shield — not round but elongated, such as we see the ancients used in their battles and still see some of the Turks use, especially in ships. For this reason experts in dissection have called it qureoeidh= 7 and laymen “shieldlike” (scutalis and peltalis), and likewise we too shall regularly, when we talk about it, call it scutiform or cartilage like a shield—unless it also seems best to call it the first cartilage. In man, its appearance is bigger in its upper than below, much different from that of cattle and pigs, where it is wider in the lower part but much narrower in the upper, and is less extended forward into a point than the larynx of man. But what has a greater bearing on the appearance is that the human cartilage looks the same on the superior and inferior part. For it puts out two processes [cornua] from both upper (A, B in figs. 3, 4, 5) and lower (C, D in the same figs.) sides, one on each side, and of these the two upper ones [cornua superiora] extend farther than the lower ones [cornua inferiora] and are attached (C in figs 2, 3, ch. 21 Bk. 4) by membranous vincula [ligamentum thyrohyoideum laterale] to the lower sides (E, F in figs. 1, 2, ch. 13) of the hyoid bone. The lower processes of the shieldlike cartilage are united and joined to the sides (E, F in fig. 8, E in fig. 7) of the second cartilage [cartilago cricoidea] towards its posterior surface. This shieldlike cartilage juts out more toward the front in men [prominentia laryngea] than in women, and is more exposed to the touch; it is sometimes double: this is especially observed in males. In its middle (G, H in figs 1, 2, 3), where the cartilage of humans is narrowest and protrudes most towards the front, a line is often extended along its longitude which when carefully cleaned of the fine membranes shows that two pieces of cartilage had been joined to each other even before the dissection. 8 Now this is certainly unique to humans; the cartilage of cattle is simple, and the shape differs considerably from the cartilage of man. I should like this to be carefully observed by architects: for it is remarkable how the scutiform cartilage of cattle resembles the shape of a rampart, and how skilfully it is accommodated to lookouts in its upper edge (because of the separate recesses cut into it), and how aptly contrived to deflect the blows of artillery, just as if it were a portable machine which could be fixed into the ground by its two lower processes as by two stakes and placed in front of an army. 9



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 38 On the Cartilages of the Rough Artery, and What Therein Would Be Called by the Greeks Glottis and Epiglottis