Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 35 On the Cartilages of the Eyelids

[On Upright Eyelashes]



In this figure we have drawn the cartilage of the upper and lower eyelid [tarsus superior et tarsus inferior] free from the other parts, and because it is marked elsewhere 1 we have identified it with no characters.

Each eyelid, both lower and upper, has a single cartilage, quite soft and long, situated at the extremity of the lids where they close and positioned between the skin and the small membrane [tunica conjunctiva palpebralis] surrounding the lids on the inside. Into this cartilage the hairs of the eyelids (which they call cilia) are fixed, and they are erected in it as if inserted in a harder foundation. 2 That is the reason these cartilages (which from the row of hairs or their likeness to oars in long ships or, as they say, galleys, we call the ta/rsoj) 3 are chiefly made, to keep the hairs erect and not flaccid or hanging like other hairs. They 4 are also created to assist the implantation of muscles [m. orbicularis oculi] (A, b, C, D, e, in the figure for ch. 10, bk. 2, and C, D in the 3rd table of muscles) that move the eyelids, as we shall explain in a timely way when discussing the nature of those muscles in the second Book.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 35 On the Cartilages of the Eyelids