Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 33 On the Bones of the Foot

Legend of the thirteen figures of the present chapter, and their characters.

The first figure represents the whole structure of the bones of the right foot in their upper [dorsal] surface. The second sets forth the construction of bones of the right foot also, drawn from the side [plantar] on which we rest when standing. In the third, the talus of the right foot is presented to the eyes in its anterior face so that its upper [dorsal] part comes into view. In the fourth, the lower [plantar] side of the same talus is represented from its anterior surface. It the fifth, the talus is viewed from its inner [medial] side. The sixth brings to view the talus drawn in its outer [lateral] side. In the seventh, the bone of the heel [calcaneus] of the right foot is so represented in its inner 1 side that its outer side shows more than its inner. In the eighth, the heelbone is shown in its inner side. 2 The ninth shows the heelbone from its outer side, and like the two preceding figures represents the upper surface of the heel. 3 In the tenth, the bone of the foot resembling a boat [os naviculare] is seen illustrated in its anterior [distal] face, where it is joined to the bones of the tarsus. 4 The eleventh is the posterior [proximal] surface of the same bone. In the twelfth is beheld the anterior [distal] face of the four bones of the tarsus joined together, to which the bones of the metatarsus are attached. In the thirteenth is viewed the posterior surface of the four bones of the tarsus, coterminous to the heel and the navicular bone.

G 1, 2 Talus
D 1, 2 Heel [calcaneus]
Q 1, 2 Bone resembling a boat [os naviculare]
1, 2, 3, 4[ 1, 2 , 12, 13 ] These numbers in the first, second, twelfth, and thirteenth figures mark the four bones of the tarsus which we name from the number written on them, calling this one the first, that one the second, and so on. 5
I, II, III, IIII, V[ 1 ] Five metatarsal bones 6 are marked in the first figure; they are seen also in the second, unmarked by characters.
L, C 1, 2 Bones of the digits of the foot [phalanges proximales].
A, B, C, D 3, 5, 6 By these four characters is marked the prominence of the talus [trochlea tali] that is articulated to the lower epiphysis [facies articularis inferior et malleolus medialis] of the tibia. A to B indicates the first rib or side [medial] of this prominence; C to D is the second [lateral], A to C the third [distal], B to D the fourth [proximal].
E, E 3 Depression in the prominence of the talus, carved along its longitude.
F, F 3 Two parts of the prominence of the talus [trochlea tali, facies superior], standing out higher than the depression marked E.
G 5 Inner side [facies malleolaris mediale] of the prominence of the talus, compressed and coated with cartilage which is connected to the inner malleolus [tibia, malleolus medialis].
H 6 Depression in the prominence of the talus situated on its outer side [facies malleolaris lateralis]; likewise covered with cartilage, it receives the outer malleolus [fibula, malleolus lateralis].
I 5 Rough depression of the talus, into which is inserted a cartilaginous ligament 7 proceeding from the inner malleolus.
K 6 Depression of the talus into which is inserted the cartilaginous ligament [lig. talofibulare anterius] originating from the outer malleolus.
L, M 5, 6 Two depressions [sulcus tendinis musculi flexoris hallucis longi] which the posterior region of the talus shows towards the inner [medial] side, provided to bring down and deflect the tendons of the muscles 8 that pass this way to the bottom of the foot.
N 3, 4, 5, 6 Neck of the talus [collum tali].
O 3, 4, 5, 6 Head of the talus [caput tali], entering the depression [facies articularis navicularis] of the bone resembling a boat which will be marked k in the eleventh figure. 9
P 7, 8, 9 Projection or head of the heelbone [calcaneus, facies articularis talaris posterior] wrapped in cartilage, entering the depression [facies articularis calcanea posterior] of the talus to be marked Q.
Q 4 Wide depression of the talus, admitting the head of the heelbone already marked P.
R 7, 8, 9 Depression of the heelbone [calcaneus, facies articularis talaris media] into which is articulated the lower surface of the head of the talus [talus, facies articularis calcanea media], now to be marked S.
S 4 Lower surface [facies articularis calcanea anterior] of the head of the talus, which is articulated to the bone resembling a boat [os naviculare]; it enters the depression of the heelbone.


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T, T 4 Rough depression of the talus [sulcus tali], from which cartilaginous ligaments [lig. talocalcaneum interosseum] are inserted into the heelbone.
V, V 7, 8, 9 Rough depression of the heelbone [sulcus calcanei], into which cartilaginous ligaments are inserted from the just-mentioned depression of the talus.
X, Y, Z 2 Surface [plantaris] of the heelbone which faces downward when the foot is placed on the ground. Y and Z 10 in the second, Y [tuber calcanei, proc. medialis tuberis calcanei] in the eighth, and Z [tuber calcanei, proc. lateralis tuberis calcanei] in the ninth severally mark the process [tuber calcanei] of this surface suited for putting forth certain muscles; 11 it presses more closely on the ground than the remaining surface of the heelbone.
a, b 7, 8, 9 From a to b is marked the interval in the upper [dorsal] surface of the heelbone running from the posterior region of the talus [proc. posterior tali] to the rear of the heel.
c 2, 8, 9 Rear area of the heel [tuber calcanei].
d, e 2, 8 Inner [medial] side of the heel; 12 e marks an area where tendons run to the bottom of the foot. 13
f, g 1, 7, 9 Outer [lateral] side of the heel; g marks the region 14 of this side through which are extended tendons of the seventh and eighth muscles [m. fibularis longus, m. fibularis brevis] that move the foot. 15
h, i 7 In the seventh figure the anterior [distal] surface of the heel is visible; h marks the part [facies articularis talaris anterior] which is joined to the talus; i marks the part [facies articularis cuboidea] that is articulated to the bone that imitates a die or cube. It is also the low head of the heelbone that enters the depression of the bone [os cuboideum, facies articularis calcanea] that imitates a cube. This head is also visible in the ninth figure. 16
k 11 A rather deeply carved depression [facies articularis navicularis] of the bone resembling a boat [os naviculare], receiving the head of the talus marked O.
l, m, n 10 Anterior side of the bone resembling a boat, showing three very slightly prominent surfaces to which the three inner bones [ossa cuneiformia] of the tarsus are articulated.
o, p 11 and o 10 Upper [dorsal] surface of the bone resembling a boat, where it faces the top of the foot.
q, r 10 and q 11 Lower [plantar] surface of the bone resembling a boat, facing the ground; q marks the depression in this surface by which the sixth of the muscles [m. tibialis posterior, tendo] that move the foot is brought down.
s, t, u 13 Three more or less flat surfaces of the three inner bones [ossa cuneiformia] of the tarsus, by which they are articulated to the boatlike bone [os naviculare].
x 13 Depression [facies articularis calcanea] lightly carved on the surface of the cuboid bone, by which it is articulated to the heelbone. This depression is one side [proximalis] of the bone. 17
a, b 12 Surface of the cubelike bone [os cuboideum] to which the metatarsal bone [os metatarsale IV] supporting the fourth toe 18 and the bone [os metatarsale V] preceding the little toe are joined on flat surfaces. This is the second side of the cuboid bone. 19
g 12, 13 Third side [medialis] of the cuboid bone, which faces the bone resembling a boat and is joined to the third of the bones [os cuneiforme laterale] of the tarsus. 20
d 12, 13 Fourth side [lateralis] of the bone compared by professors of anatomy to a cube, facing the outer [lateral] surface of the foot.
e 12, 13 Fifth side of the same bone, situated on the upper [dorsal] surface of the foot.
z, h 2 and z 13 Sixth side [plantaris] of that bone,pressing on the ground. The h separately marks its depression, against which the tendon of the seventh muscle moving the foot is bent. 21
q 13 Process of the third of the bones [os cuneiforme laterale] of the tarsus, which is articulated to the cuboid bone; it is prominent so that the fifth of the muscles [m. tibialis posterior] that move the foot may be inserted into it. 22
i 12 Area on the innermost of the tarsal bones [os cuneiforme mediale] to which is articulated the metatarsal bone [os metatarsale I] that precedes the big toe.
k 12 To this point [facies articularis metatarsalis] on the second tarsal bone [os cuneiforme intermedium] is attached the metatarsal bone [os metatarsale II] supporting the second toe.
l 12 To this point on the third tarsal bone [os cuneiforme laterale] is articulated the metatarsal [os metatarsale III] on which the middle toe rests.
m 1, 2 Ossicle [os sesamoideum] 23 visible at the outer side of the articulation by which the metatarsal placed before the little toe is attached to the bone resembling a cube. 24
n, n 1, 2 Intervals and places [interossei] where the metatarsal bones separate from each other.
c, c 1, 2 Capitula of the metatarsal bones [caput metatarsale], entering the depressions of the first bones of the toes.
ϖ 2 Process of the metarsal bone [tuberositas ossis metatarsalis primi] that supports the big toe [hallux], into which is implanted the tendon of the seventh muscle [m. fibularis (peroneus) longus] of those that move the foot.
r 2 Process of the upper [proximal] epiphysis of the metatarsal bone [tuberositas ossis metatarsalis quinti] preceding the little toe, projecting primarily to receive the insertion of the eighth of the muscles [m. fibularis (peroneus) brevis] moving the foot.
j, t, u 1, 2 Three bones [phalanx proximalis, p. media, p. distalis] of the second toe; the same system applies to the middle, fourth, and little toe.
f, x 1, 2 Two bones [phalanx proximalis, p. distalis] of the big toe.
y, w 2 Two ossicles [ossa sesamoidea] located beneath the metatarsal bone that supports the big toe. 25
* 2 Ossicle placed before the second internode of the big toe. We have not placed marks of identification on the remaining sesamoid ossicles in the first joints of the toes. 26



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 33 On the Bones of the Foot