Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 31 On the Tibia and Fibula

Index of the figures of the thirty-first chapter and their characters.

The eleven preceding figures have a view to the right lower leg; the first depicts both bones situated in the lower leg in their anterior face: the thicker, inner [medial] bone which we shall call the tibia, and the more slender, which is located more exteriorly [laterally] and will be called by us the fibula rather than the sura. 1 The second figure most suitably delineates the tibia together with the fibula in their posterior aspect. The third shows the anterior surface of the tibia by itself. In the fourth, the posterior surface of the tibia is presented to view. The fifth illustrates the fibula in its anterior surface. The sixth exhibits the fibula drawn from the rear. The seventh portrays the upper [proximal] surface of the tibia, to which the femur is articulated. The eighth contains the two cartilages [meniscus medialis, meniscus lateralis] which extend the cavities [facies articularis superior] in which the heads [condylus medialis, c. lateralis] of the femur are received. The ninth sets forth the lowest [distal] surface of the tibia and fibula in their anterior part so as to expose to view the cavity [facies articularis inferior] provided for the articulation of the talus with the lower leg. The tenth presents the lowest surface of the tibia shown from the posterior, where the talus is received. The eleventh shows the inner side of the fibula’s lower epiphysis, which is articulated to the talus. The index of characters will be as follows.

A, B[ 1, 2, 3 ] By these two characters 2 in the first figure is identified the upper epiphysis of the tibia, while in the third and the second a line [linea epiphysealis] is indicated showing the fusion of the epiphysis with the remaining portion [corpus tibiae] of the bone.
C[ 1 , 5 ] The upper epiphysis of the fibula [caput fibulae] is so marked in the first figure, and in the fifth the fusion of the epiphysis with the rest of the bone [corpus fibulae].
D[ 1, 3 ] In the first figure, the lower epiphysis of the tibia; in the third, the fusion of the epiphysis [linea epiphysialis].
E[ 1 , 5 ] In the first figure, the lower epiphysis of the fibula [malleolus lateralis]; in the fifth, the fusion [linea epiphysialis] of the epiphysis to the bone. Although I have not marked such epiphyses and fusions in all the figures, I believe the epiphyses will be obvious to all. 3
F, G 2, 4 , 7 Depressions [facies articularis superior] in the tibia to which the lower heads of the femur [condylus medialis et lateralis] are articulated.
H, I, K 7 Protuberance of the tibia [eminentia intercondylaris] separating the depressions in which the heads of the femur are received. H [area intercondylaris anterior] marks its anterior end, I [tuberculum intercondylare] 4 the middle, which protrudes more, and K [area intercondylaris posterior] the posterior. These characters are seen in the portions of the protuberance which are depressed. Of these, K and I in the second, third, and fourth figure mark the same thing as in the seventh.
L 8 Cartilage [meniscus lateralis] extending the right 5 depression [facies] of the tibia in which the outer head of the femur [condylus lateralis] is received.
M 8 Cartilage [meniscus medialis] increasing the left or inner depression of the right tibia to which the inner head [condylus medialis] of the femur is articulated.
N 8 At this point the cartilages increasing the depression of the tibia are at their thickest.
O 8 At this point the cartilages just mentioned are at their thinnest, and come to an end before the center of the depressions.
P, P 8 At these points 6 the cartilages end at their tip.
Q 5 Depression [facies articularis capitis fibulae] lightly carved in the surface of the fibula, to which is articulated the tubercle of the tibia marked R.
R 4 Tubercle [facies articularis fibularis] or head of the tibia which is fitted to the fibula.
S 4 , 10 Depression [incisura fibularis] of the tibia, where it receives the lower end of the fibula.
T 5, 6, 11 Inner side of the fibula [facies articularis malleoli lateralis], which is joined to the tibia.
V, X, Y[ 2 ] In the second figure, V [facies articularis fibularis] marks the upper joint of the fibula to the tibia and X the lower. Y marks the interval [interossea cruris] by which these bones separate from each other.
Z 1, 2 In this area the fibula does not run straight, but is angled somewhat inward and is flat on its outer side.
a, b 1, 3 , 7 Anterior surface of the tibia, into which the muscles 7 that extend the tibia are inserted.
c 5, 6 Process [apex capitis fibulae] of the upper epiphysis of the fibula, into which is inserted a tendon of the fourth muscle [m. biceps femoris] that moves the lower leg.
d, e, f, g, h 9 Surface to which the upper part [trochlea tali] and sides [facies malleolaris medialis et lateralis] of the talus are articulated. d, e, and f [facies articularis inferior tibiae] show the upper region of this surface in the ninth and tenth figures. d marks a tubercle in this region; e and f are a part of this region on each side near the side of the tubercle marked d, more deeply depressed than the tubercle itself. g [facies articularis malleoli] marks the inner side of this area, which is formed by the outer side of the process of the lower epiphysis of the tibia, marked F [malleolus medialis] in the first figure. In the ninth and eleventh figures, h [facies articularis malleoli] shows the outer side of this surface which is fitted to the talus, formed by the inner side of the lower epiphysis of the fibula, marked E [malleolus lateralis] in the first figure.
F [ 1 ], i[ 2, 3 , 9, 10 ] In the first figure, F marks the process [malleolus medialis] of the lower epiphysis of the tibia which is the outer 8 malleolus.


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In the second, third, ninth, and tenth figures, i marks the same process of the epiphysis.
k 4 , 10 Depression [sulcus malleolaris] of the inner malleolus, from which a cartilaginous ligament 9 is inserted into the talus.
l 1, 3 , 9 10 Rough, irregular depression visible in the anterior surface of the lower epiphysis of the tibia, from which originates a cartilaginous ligament [capsula articularis] to the neck of the talus.
m 2, 4 , 10 At this place depressions [tibia, sulcus malleolaris] are seen which bring down three tendons 11 that are stretched to the lower parts of the foot.
n 2 , 5, 6, 9 In the first figure, E marks the outer malleolus [malleolus lateralis]; it is nothing other than the lower epiphysis of the fibula. But in most of the figures n represents this malleolus.
o, p 1 , 5 This shaded area 12 of the fibula, extending from o to p, is the part of the fibula that presents itself bare and covered by no muscles prior to dissection.
q, q 2 , 6 The tendons of the seventh and eighth muscles [m. fibularis longus, m. fibularis brevis] that move the foot are bent this way; because of them, the fibula is concave here.
r 2 , 6, 11 Depression [fossa malleoli lateralis] of the lower epiphysis of the fibula, from which a ligament [lig. talofibulare posterius] is brought to the talus.
s, s 1 , 5 First line [margo anterior] of the fibula, or first angle thereof.
t, t 1, 2 , 5, 6 Second line [margo interosseus] of the fibula.
u, u 1, 2 , 5, 6 Third [margo lateralis] line of the fibula.
x, x 1 , 5 First side [facies medialis] of the fibula. x and x specifically mark the line on this side that is slightly raised for the muscle [m. extensor hallucis longus] that extends the big toe.
a, a 1 , 5 13 Second side [facies lateralis] of the fibula.
b, b 2 , 6 Third side [facies posterior] of the fibula.
g, g 1, 3 First line [margo anterior] of the tibia.
d, d 1, 2, 3, 4 Second line [margo interosseus] of the tibia.
e, e 1, 2, 3, 4 Third line [margo medialis] of the tibia.
z 1, 3 First side [facies lateralis] of the tibia.
h 1, 3 Second side [facies medialis] of the tibia.
q 2, 4 Third side [facies posterior] of the tibia.
k 2, 4 Rough line [linea musculi solei] in the third side of the tibia, into which the muscle [m. popliteus] hiding in the back of the knee is inserted.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 31 On the Tibia and Fibula