Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 30 On the Femur

Index of characters which will be used to mark the two figures of the present chapter on the following page.

A 1, 2 Head of the femur [caput femoris], entering the acetabulum of the hipbone [os coxae].
B 1 Depression [fovea capitis femoris] incised in the head of the femur, receiving the insertion of a rounded ligament [lig. capitis femoris] from the hipbone.
C 1, 2 Fusion of the epiphysis 1 with the remaining part of the femur, forming the round head of the femur.
D 1, 2 Neck of the femur [collum femoris].
E, F 1, 2 Lower heads of the femur. E marks the inner [condylus medialis], F the outer [condylus lateralis].
G 1, 2 This line marks the fusion of the epiphysis which constitutes the two lower heads of the femur. 2
H 2 Depression [facies patellaris] which is common to the heads marked E and F, and which the patella enters.
I 1 Depression [fossa intercondylaris] and interval separating the two lower heads of the femur from each other.
K 1 From this area of the inner head, the first of the muscles [m. gastrocnemius, caput mediale] that move the foot takes its origin.


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L 1 From here the second [m. gastrocnemius, caput laterale] and third [m. plantaris] of the muscles that move the foot together take their origin.
M 1 Into this area [tuberculum adductorium] of the inner head is inserted the tendon of the fifth of the muscles [m. adductor magnus] that move the femur. We shall place the legend of the remaining letters beneath the figures. 3

N 1, 2 Depression carved in the outer side of the lower heads [epicondylus lateralis] of the femur, conveying the fourth of the muscles [m. biceps femoris] that move the tibia. 4
O 1 At this point the inner side of the inner head [condylus medialis] of the femur is compressed so that tendons of the first, second, third, and fifth muscles 5 that move the tibia may be extended hence.
P 1 In this region the same side of the inner head [epicondylus medialis] protrudes noticeably. 6
Q, R, S, V, X, Y Outer process [trochanter major] of the femur. The individual letters not visible at the same time in both figures mark some separate feature, as I shall now add. Q in the first and second figures marks the fusion of the epiphysis of this process [trochanter major] to the rest of the bone [corpus femoris]; R in the first figure is a depression [fossa trochanterica] carved in the inner surface of this process. S in the first figure marks the first impression [tuberculum quadratum] in the outer process.
T, T In the first figure, these mark a rough line [tuberositas glutealis] running down from the first impression; V in the second figure identifies the second impression in the outer process [trochanter major], X the third impression. Y in both figures marks the fourth impression.
a, b 1, 2 Inner process [trochanter minor] of the femur. b, appearing only in the second figure, shows there the fusion of the epiphysis.
c, c 1 Rough line [linea pectinea] running obliquely downward from the root of the inner process for the eighth [m. pectineus] of the muscles that move the femur.
d, d 1 Line [linea aspera] protruding along the longitude of the femur, admitting the insertion of the fifth of the muscles [m. adductor magnus] that move the femur.
e 1 At this point [facies poplitea] the femur is wide, 7 though it is rounded along most of its remaining length.
f 2 Rough surface [linea intertrochanterica] from which the eighth of the muscles [m. vastus medialis] that move the tibia takes the beginning of its origin.



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The femoral bone 8 (all of figs. 1, 2; L in the skeletons, articulated superiorly with ϖ [os coxae], inferiorly with F [tibia]) exceeds in size all the bones of the human fabric, though in birds and almost all the quadrupeds it yields in length to the tibia and the fibula (when the latter is present). It is jointed above with the hipbone and below, by a different kind of joint, with the tibia. 9



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 30 On the Femur