Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 29 On the Bones Which Are Attached to the Sides of the Sacrum

Why the pubic bone is pierced by a very large foramen; its depressions and convexities

Why the pubic bone is perforated by the largest foramen (r in figs. 1, 2, 3) [f. obturatum] of all the bones of the body (which also, because of its size it is called quroeide/j from its resemblance to a door) 63 is understood by those who have learned in dissecting exactly what muscles originate from the hipbone and the pubis, for they say that the pubic bone needed to be a wide area fit for the origins of muscles. Lest an animal be needlessly weighed down but rather be light, it has the foramen which we mentioned. No one should think that the seminal vessels (e and from i to u in fig. 20, Bk. 5; or from g to z in fig. 22) [ductus deferens] or the largest veins (j in the figure for ch. 6, Bk. 3) [v. iliaca communis] and arteries (f in the figure for ch. 12, Bk. 3) [a. iliaca communis], or even the nerves (71 in fig. 2 ch. 11 Bk. 4) [plexus sacralis] descend this way, as anyone untrained in anatomy believes who looks at the bare structure of bones. For those organs have another route: the largest vein to the leg [v. femoralis], and the artery [a. femoralis], together with the second nerve (60 in the same figure) [n. femoralis] to the leg make their own depression (V in figs 1, 2, 3) [ramus superior ossis pubis], worked into the upper surface of the pubic bone away from the vicinity of the upper area of the foramen (r in figs. 1, 2, 3) [f. obturatum] just mentioned. Furthermore, you will hear that a course has been provided for the seminal vessels even higher than where the pubic bone projects in the abdomen. The great foramen of the pubis is filled with a strong membrane (O, O in fig. 2, ch. 49, Bk. 2) [membrana obturatoria] which separates the muscle (F, G in the 16th table of muscles) [m. obturator internus] next to the inner surface of the foramen from the one (Y in the 8th table of muscles) [m. obturator externus] 64 which occupies the outside surface of the foramen. Nothing else transits this foramen [f. obturatum] except a vein (ei in ch. 6, Bk. 3) [v. obturatoria], an artery (j in the figure for ch. 12, Bk. 3) [a. obturatoria], and the nerve (66 in figure 2, ch. 11, Bk. 4) [n. obturatorius] 65 whose series of branches 66 is not carried as far as the knee. These vessels are not borne through the middle of the foramen; rather, a depression (s in figs. 1, 2, 3) [sulcus obturatorius] is carved in the upper surface of the foramen, provided to bring them down. That the upper part (to the right side of u in fig. 2) of the pubic bones where they are joined together [corpus ossis pubis, facies symphysialis] is rough happens because Nature saw fit to have the straight muscles of the abdomen (D in the 5th table of muscles) [rectus abdominis] originate from here. The anterior surface of these bones is also rough there so that the sinewy head of the second (D in the 16th table of muscles) [m. gracilis] of the muscles that move the tibia might duly begin from here. Also, on the anterior surface of the pubis from the inner side of the acetabulum of the hip to the joining of the pubic bones (from h to u in fig. 2) a projection and kind of prominence [crista obturatoria] is seen, from which the eighth (a in the 7th table of muscles) [m. adductor longus] of the muscles that move the femur takes its origin. Just as this anterior area of the pubic bone protrudes, so also the posterior shows a sharp line (O in fig. 3) [pecten ossis pubis] from which the tenth (G in the 16th table of muscles) [m. obturator internus] of the muscles that move the femur takes a portion of its origin. To all of these is added the thick part (t in figs. 1, 2, 3) [ramus inferior ossis pubis] of the pubic bone next to the lowest area of the connection of the pubic bones and the inner side of the great foramen where the pubic bone is more or less rounded and heavy 67 so as to increase the strength of the bone and also so that in addition to certain muscles of the penis (L, K in the same figures) [mm. ischiocavernosi], one of the bodies (A, B in figs. 1 and 2, ch. 49, Bk. 2) [corpora cavernosa penis] that make up the penis may originate here.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 29 On the Bones Which Are Attached to the Sides of the Sacrum