Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 29 On the Bones Which Are Attached to the Sides of the Sacrum

Index of the three figures at hand and their characters (which will follow the order of their presentation in this chapter).



In these three figures is pictured the bone [os coxae] attached to the right side of the sacrum. The first represents the anterior surface of this bone as it presents itself in a skeleton seen from the anterior region, as in the first of the three figures which I shall add to the end of this book. 1 The second figure illustrates the surface [posterolateral] which is external and does not face the inside of the body: namely, on the side where the bone meets the eye when one views the skeleton from the right side. The third figure gives the best view of the inner [medial] surface of this bone from the opposite side. Though all the markings on these figures will point to some separate feature, as I shall presently explain, it will by these letters be possible, in passing, to subdivide the entire bone which is represented here into the ilium, the hipbone 2 [os ischii], and the pubis. Imagine, for example, a line [linea glutealis inferior] drawn in the second figure from c through b to S [spina iliaca anterior inferior], and again in the third from S through N to c, more or less separating the iliac bone from the hipbone [os ischii]. What is above those letters will be called the ilium. What is included between those letters and a line in the second figure between V, through s and h, to F, and in the third between V, through O [pecten ossis pubis] and s, to F, we shall consider the hipbone. The remaining surface of the entire bone will be called the pubis, in the second figure to the left of the letters V, s, h, and F and in the third to the right of V, O, s, and F. 3

A, B, C, D, E, F, G[ 3 ] in fig. 3 mark the area [facies sacropelvica] of the ilium which is attached to the transverse processes [pars lateralis] of the sacrum. A and B severally mark depressions [facies auricularis] entered by the anterior protruding part of the transverse processes of the upper three bones of the sacrum [pars lateralis, facies auricularis]. B also marks a part of the ilium [spina iliaca posterior inferior] that is thin and sharp like a knife. C and C identify a long ridge of the ilium [facies auricularis] that matches a long depression of the processes of the sacrum [pars lateralis, facies auricularis]. D and D are a long depression [facies auricularis] of the ilium 4 which receives a ridge of the sacrum [tuberositas sacralis] that protrudes like a spine of the dorsum. E, F, and G [tuberositas iliaca] are parts of the ilium that do not exactly match depressions or protrusions of the sacrum, though E and F mark two more or less convex parts that obscurely fit into depressions of the sacrum, while G marks a depression that admits a protrusion of the sacrum that transversely separates those two depressions of the sacrum.


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Such features are not shown with great accuracy, since this area of the bone is rough and uneven, presenting a varied appearance like that of a broken rock. 5
H, I 2, 3 Whatever is to the right of H [crista iliaca] and I [spina iliaca posterior superior] in the second figure and to the left of them in the third 6 marks the portion of the ilium [ala ossis ilii] that is extended more posteriorly than the breadth of the transverse processes of the sacrum.
L, R, R, P[ 1 ] in the first, Q, H, R, R, P in the second, and P, L, H, Q in the third, mark the epiphysis of the iliac bone. L separately marks the inner side of the epiphysis [crista iliaca, labium internum]; R and R are the outer side [crista iliaca, labium externum], less compressed than the inner. P is the anterior extremity [spina iliaca anterior superior] of the epiphysis, Q the posterior [spina iliaca posterior superior].
K, K 3 The area [fossa iliaca] next to the left 7 side of these letters provides the origin of the ninth [m. iliacus] of the muscles that move the dorsum.
M, N, O 3 Protrusion [linea arcuata] from which hangs the beginning of the tenth muscle [m. obturatorius internus] that moves the femur. The wide area [fossa iliaca] which we have marked P, L, K, K, M, N, S in the third figure, or which is circumscribed by these letters, provides the origin for the seventh [m. iliacus] of the muscles that move the femur.
T 1, 2, 3 Depression [sulcus supra-acetabularis] carved in the higher area of the hip, providing a path for the sixth and seventh muscles [m. rectus femoris, caput reflexum] [caput rectum] that move the femur together with the first nerve [n. femoralis] that goes to the leg.
S 1, 2, 3 Protuberance [spina iliaca anterior inferior] forming the outer side of the depression just mentioned. 8
X 1, 2, 3 Protuberance [eminentia iliopubica] forming the inner side of the depression just mentioned.
Z, Y 2 First line [linea glutealis anterior] appearing quite obscurely on the back of the ilium.
a, b 2 Second line [linea glutealis inferior] on the back of the ilium.
e, f, g 1, 2 Socket and acetabulum [facies lunata] of the hipbone, to which the femur is articulated; g [fossa acetabuli] by itself marks the part of this socket which is not coated with smooth and slippery cartilage 9 and is more deeply carved than the remaining surface of the socket.
i, i 1, 2 Brows of the acetabulum [limbus acetabuli] cut in the hipbone.
h 1, 2 Place where the brows stop, and have something of a visible depression [incisura acetabuli].
c 2, 3 Place [incisura ischiadica major] 10 where the largest of all nerves [n. ischiadicus] 11 of the body, combined of several nerves [plexus lumbalis, p. sascralis], is extended.
d 2, 3 Process of the hipbone [spina ischiadica] from which a ligament [lig. sacrospinale] to the sacrum originates.
k 1, 2, 3 Depression of the hipbone [incisura ischiadica minor] upon which the tenth [m. obturator internus] of the muscles that move the femur is bent back as on a pulley by the marvellous skill of Nature. 12
l, m, n, o, p, q[ 2 ] These are in the second figure, with l marking the epiphysis of the hipbone only in the first; it also marks the posterior terminus of the epiphysis. 13 The anterior terminus is q, the first impression in the epiphysis is m, the second is o, the third n, the fourth p to q [ramus ossis ischii]. 14
u, u 1, 2 These mark the place [corpus ossis pubis, facies symphysialis] where the right pubic bone joins with the left by means of cartilage. 15 In the first figure, u marks the roughness of bone from which the cartilage has been removed; in the second is seen the outer part of the bone [tuberculum pubicum] which is rough because of the origination of muscles. 16
r 1, 2, 3 Foramen of the pubic bone [f. obturatum], the largest of all foramina of the bones.
V 1, 2, 3 Depression cut in the upper part of the of the pubic bone [ramus superior ossis pubis], where the largest vein [v. femoralis] and artery [a. femoralis] to the leg and in men the seminal vessel [funiculus spermaticus] are brought down.
s 1, 2, 3 17 Depression [sulcus obturatorius] carved in the higher surface of the foramen of the pubis, providing a path for a vein [v. obturatoria], an artery [a. obturatoria], and the third nerve [n. obturatorius] to the leg.
t 1, 2, 3 Here [ramus inferior ossis pubis] the pubic bone thickens somewhat so as not to become too thin; in men it puts forth the second muscle of the penis [m. ischiocavernosus] and another body [crus penis] belonging to it.

To the transverse processes [pars lateralis] 18 of the three upper bones of the sacrum there is connected on each side a single bone, 19 to which as a whole no name is given, according to Galen. 20



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 29 On the Bones Which Are Attached to the Sides of the Sacrum