Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 22 On the Clavicles

Composition, protuberances, rough and smooth places, and foramina of the clavicle

The part of the clavicle which is connected to the upper process of the scapula (from I to Q in figs. 1 and 2) is rather wide, as the process is also wide and ample. This part of the clavicle, like the part joined to the pectoral bone, is porous and more loosely knit than the remaining portion of the clavicle, 25 as those parts are thicker and denser: bones are always seen to be more spongy inside the thicker and bigger they are. The clavicle itself is extremely solid in the middle of its length (H in figs. 1, 2, 3) [corpus claviculae] because here too it is thinnest and more or less smoothly rounded. But it is not entirely smooth, for in its lower region it protrudes as in a line [impressio ligamenti costoclavicularis] (F, G in figs. 2 and 3) 26 which begins not far from the head of the clavicle [extremitas sternalis] which is articulated to the pectoral bone, near the midpoint between the posterior and anterior angles (C, B) of its head. This line 27 extends a little beyond the middle of the clavicle’s length [corpus claviculae], and is provided so that the first of the muscles that move the thorax [m. subclavius] (d in the 4th table of muscles) may take its beginning from there. Near the beginning of this line by the head of the clavicle [extremitas sternalis] there is seen a concave roughness (G in figs. 2 and 3) from which originates a strong ligament [l. costoclaviculare] that binds the clavicle to the pectoral bone [manubrium sterni] where the cartilage of the first rib of the thorax is attached (C in fig. 1, ch. 19). At the other end of this line there is another roughness [sulcus musculi subclavii] (N in fig. 3) and a certain roughish depression where the clavicle nearly rests upon the tubercle (F in figs. 1 and 2, ch. 21) and the root of the inner process of the scapula [p. coracoideus], from whence a ligament [l. coracoclaviculare] is put forth that firmly binds the clavicle to that tubercle. The lower surface of the clavicle where this line ends, and the clavicle itself, are wide, concave, and rough (from L through M to Q in fig. 3), particularly next to the connection 28 of the clavicle to the upper process [acromion] of the scapula where the ligaments binding this joint originate more strongly than on the upper surface. The upper region of the entire clavicle is quite smooth except near the joints, where it is somewhat rough in order to put forth ligaments, and likewise for muscles. From the upper part of the clavicle near the pectoral bone, the muscle [m. sternocleidomastoideus] (Q in the 4th table of muscles) originates which also begins from the pectoral bone and is implanted in the mamillary process [p. mastoideus] of the head (k in figs. 3, 4, 5, chapter 6) and will be counted the thirteenth 29 of the movers of the head or one of the seventh pair. To the upper part of the clavicle that is joined to the upper process of the scapula, that muscle [m. trapezius] (G in the 9th table of muscles and b in the 4th) is inserted 30 which will be numbered the first of those that elevate the scapula. In the anterior part of the clavicle at the root of the first angle of its head, a line (E in figs. 1 and 3) also protrudes which ends before the middle of the clavicle’s longitude; from it a major portion of the muscle [m. pectoralis major] (D in the 3rd table of muscles, then from K to L) 31 that adducts the arm to the chest takes its origin. In addition, on the anterior surface of the clavicle where it is bent to the rear and where it is concave not far from its articulation with the upper process of the scapula, there is also a noteworthy roughness (at K in figure 1) prepared for the muscle [m. deltoideus] (from e to f next to C in the 4th table of muscles) 32 that raises the arm, a large part of whose origin begins here. On the posterior surface of the clavicle there is nothing uneven which has not been mentioned except a certain tubercle [t. conoideum] (O in figs. 2 and 3) protruding here where the clavicle is most convex; this tubercle constitutes as it were an angle of that bulging surface, and it puts out a ligament [l. coracoclaviculare, pars conoideum] to the inner process of the scapula. Beyond these things there is scarcely anything noteworthy in the clavicle, unless perhaps you wish some small not quite pervious foramina to be added to the account. Sometimes two, sometimes three of these are seen in the densest part of the clavicle, especially in the posterior surface, provided to transmit the small veins that nurture the clavicle.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 22 On the Clavicles