Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 21 On the Scapuli

The shoulder top or a)krw/mion, whose careful description must now be commenced

I use the term summus humerus for what was named the acromion by the ancients, though it is not so easy to divine what anyone understood by this word. 61 If only because of the divine Hippocrates, this word should not be neglected, nor should a hasty decision be made regarding it; let us but call our minds away for now from syrups and juleps, 62 and reckon that the divine oracles of Hippocrates on fractures, dislocations of the bones, and such afflictions, 63 pertain to us also. It will not therefore have been out of place to describe the spine of the scapula and the acromion as seemed best to us, and afterward to add to our account the opinion of Hippocrates and Galen. A powerful, heavy process (G, H in fig. 2) grows from nearly the whole width of the dorsum of the scapula: not from the middle of the longitude of the dorsum (not midway between Z and Y in fig. 2, but more towards Z), but not far from its upper surface. This process (which is the spine of the scapula) gradually becomes larger and larger, and finally (H to K in fig. 2) leaves the dorsum of the scapula near the neck; appearing more or less smoothly rounded, it is brought slightly forward. It broadens noticeably (K in figs. 1, 2, 3) above the joint of the scapula where it joins the humerus and has a broad epiphysis which in children is constructed of several ossicles 64 (Q, R in the fig. for ch. 3) joined by cartilage. The entire anterior, posterior, and lower parts of this process are smooth and not at all rough, but its upper surface is by no means smooth but rough, with certain small blind foramina, particularly in the upper surface of its epiphysis and at a point (I in figs. 2, 3) not far from the base of the scapula where this process is thicker and often has an additional epiphysis. Surely, Nature did not devise them in vain: 65 she built these rough places for the sake of muscles; 66 in them is implanted a very large muscle [m. trapezius] (G, D in the 9th table of muscles) that draws the scapula upward. This process is rougher in the places I mentioned because the muscle makes a broader and stronger insertion there. Furthermore, this roughness provides the point of origin 67 for the most eminent muscle that moves the arm [m. deltoideus] (D in the 10th table of muscles), which anatomists have called e)pwmi/j 68 because it perfectly covers the joint [articulatio glenohumeralis] of the humerus with the scapula. In the anterior surface of the process 69 a depression [facies articularis acromii] (L in figures 1 and 2) is carved so lightly and superficially that you would scarcely distinguish whether it is a capitulum or a depression. Into this depression the slightly projecting tubercle of the clavicle [extremitas acromialis] (Q in fig. 3, ch. 22) is articulated, and is held in place by the strongest of ligaments. 70




Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 21 On the Scapuli