Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 21 On the Scapuli

The inner process

The other [processus coracoideus] (E, F in figs. 1, 2) is inner and smaller; it takes its beginning from a broad root (F in figs. 1, 2) on the upper side of the neck of the scapula and from here, quite wide, it is brought forward opposite the anterior part of the joint more toward the top. The lower part of this process is quite smooth, and concave like the ancient Greek letter C 39 , and for this reason is also called sigmoeidh/j, sigmoid. 40 Others, however, from the appearance that an anchor presents that has one part fixed in the ground, have called this process a)gkuroeidh/j. 41 Many, on the other hand, because it is inclined like a crow’s beak, have called it kwrakoeidh/j, coracoid. 42 Galen’s translators have subsequently made a mockery of these names — with assistance from Galen, since he is inconsistent in his nomenclature; for while elsewhere he almost always calls this process ancyroid, in the thirteenth book of De usu partium he applied that name to the scapular process which we call the top of the shoulder. 43 But the names of this process will necessarily come up later. But now we shall run through what remains to be told about the interior process [p. coracoideus]. On its lower surface it is smooth, but above it is rough and uneven. It looks thicker on the upper part of its beginning, and bulges in an irregular swelling (F in figs. 1 and 2) against which the clavicle nearly rests and is firmly attached. 44 On its tip (E in figs. 1 and 2), where it puts forth an epiphysis, it is also rough, so that the inner head of the anterior of the muscles that flex the forearm [m. biceps brachii, caput breve] (n in the 6th table of muscles) may better take its origin from it, and so that the ligament [l. coraco-acromiale] peculiar to the shoulder joint may have its beginning here. Between the tip and the tubercle on which the clavicle is nearly supported 45 (f in fig. 1), this upper surface of the process is also rough so that the ligament [l. coraco-acromiale] (c in the 5th table of muscles) leading from here to the upper process of the scapula may better be put forth. 46 Just as this upper surface of the process is rough so that it may put forth those ligaments 47 and that muscle’s head, 48 so too the neck of the scapula shows certain little blind foramina circularly arrayed, from which hangs the origin of powerful ligaments [capsula articularis, ll. gleno-humeralia] belonging to this joint.

Now it will be timely also to talk about the other process [acromion] of the scapula. We shall best discover its nature if we look carefully at the anterior and posterior surfaces of the scapula.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 21 On the Scapuli