Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 21 On the Scapuli

Three angles of the scapula; a fuller description of the sides

Those two sides which make the third angle at their ends differ not only in the shortness of their course, but also in their thickness. The higher the lower side [margo lateralis] runs upward from the base, the thicker it becomes, and noticeably more dense (at P in fig. 1 and S in fig. 2), just as if by means of this side Nature had wished great strength added to a scapula that is otherwise thin and weak, and in the second place had prepared a convenient place for the origin of certain muscles. 29 For besides the fact that the thickness of this side makes the inner part of the scapula [facies costalis] (between N, O, P, and p in fig. 1) more concave for the sake of certain muscles [m. subscapularis] (as I shall soon add) and forms a kind of depression [facies dorsalis] (between G, H, S, T in fig. 2) on the outer side or protuberance, this side itself also effects a compression (T in fig. 2) in its outer surface near the lower angle of the base of the scapula and runs some way downward to provide an origin there for the muscle [m. teres major] (K in the 8th table of muscles, s in the 13th) by which the upper arm, when extended away from the chest, is brought back. Also, on the inner surface of this side next to its upper part where it abuts the neck of the scapula, there is also seen a somewhat rough and uneven oblong depression [tuberculum infraglenoidale] (Q in fig. 1) providing a point of origin for the muscle [m. triceps brachii, caput longum] (T in the 12th table of muscles) which we shall state in the second book begins from the scapula and makes the ulna extend. We shall always call this lower side of the scapula the lower “rib,” costa, as did the ancients, who called the upper and lower sides of the scapula pleurai/. 30 The upper side of the scapula is thin and not at all heavy all the way to the upper region [angulus lateralis] of the scapular cervix [collum scapulae] (C in figs. 1 and 2) where the inner process [p. coracoideus] of the scapula (F in figs. 1 and 2) originates; 31 this is where the upper side of the scapula thickens markedly. Within this side near the base of the scapula’s interior process, a certain depression (a in fig. 1) or half a foramen [incisura scapulae] is carved like a semicircle, providing a path for a twig [n. suprascapularis] (i in fig. 3, ch. 11, Bk. 4) of one of the fifth pair of nerves 32 of the dorsal medulla; this twig goes to the posterior surface of the scapula [facies dorsalis] together with a small vein [v. suprascapularis] and an artery [a. suprascapularis].



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 21 On the Scapuli