Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 21 On the Scapuli

[Figures and figure legend]

The next page shows the index of the three figures which are set forth here, and their characters.

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The first figure of the twenty-first chapter illustrates the inner or anterior surface [facies costalis] of the right scapula, which rests upon the ribs. 1 The second shows the outer or posterior surface [facies dorsalis] of the right scapula. The third has the scapula of the right side shown sidewise [margo medialis], so as to display the hollow [fossa supraspinata] of the convex, exterior surface of the scapula which lies between the upper side 2 of the scapula and the spine of the scapula [spina scapulae]. This will presently be made clearer by the figure legends. 3

In the first figure, Z [angulus superior], X [margo medialis (epiphysis)], and Y [angulus inferior (epiphysis)] mark the base of the scapula, the scapula being more or less triangular. Z, a, and A mark the scapula’s upper side, and Y and B the lower side 4 of the scapula, so that Z [angulus superior] is the upper angle of the base and Y [angulus inferior (epiphysis)] the lower. A and B [cavitas glenoidalis] are the third angle of the scapula, which the upper and lower sides of the scapula form. These letters mark those items incidentally; each letter signifies a feature distinct from the others in the following way.

A, B 1 , 2 Depression [cavitas glenoidalis] of the scapula into which the head of the humerus [caput humeri] is articulated. 5 In the second figure, the lower portion of the depression, which is more or less round, is marked B. A is the narrower upper part, and the contracted A in the first figure illustrates the protruding part [tuberculum supraglenoidale] of the depression or neck of the scapula [collum scapulae] from which two ligaments [ll. glenohumeralia et l. coracohumerale] peculiar to this joint originate together with the outer head of the anterior of the muscles [m. bicipitis brachii, caput longum] that flex the forearm.
C, D 1 , 2 Cervix or neck of the scapula [collum scapulae]. 6 C also marks the root of the scapula’s interior process [processus coracoideus], marked E, f, and F. C in the first figure also marks a certain depression 7 visible beneath the inner process of the scapula.
E, f and F[ 1 , 2 ] in the first figure, and E and F in the second, mark the inner process [processus coracoideus] of the scapula, where F designates the protuberant part to which the clavicle is attached and by which it is all but supported. 8 E shows the epiphysis of this process, and f the rough area from which the ligament [l. coraco-acromiale] originates that extends from here to the acromion 9 (which will be marked K).
G, H 2 Root of the spine of the scapula, or the actual spine of the scapula, which in man puts forth the acromion, marked K, in the first, second, and third figures and L in the first and third. 10 Thus the longitude of the spine’s source is G and H. What runs from H to K is the acromion. Where H is seen is the point where we shall say the spine leaves the back of the scapula. The epiphysis of the acromion is separately marked K.
L 1 , 3 Depression [facies articularis acromii] quite lightly carved in the acromion, prepared for the admission of the clavicle.
I 2 , 3 Thicker part 11 of the spine of the scapula, sometimes with an epiphysis. 12 Around G, I, and H, the spine of the scapula is thicker than elsewhere. From G through I to K the rough part of the spine and the acromion is labeled. What lies between I and H in the second figure and in the first between L and a is smooth and not at all rough.
M, M, etc. 1 Tubercles resembling oblique lines, 13 forming depressions that look as if they had been impressed in the hollow of the scapula by the curvature of the ribs.
N, O 1 Hollower areas [fossa subscapularis] in the inner region of the scapula, corresponding to the letters G and H in the second figure.
P 1 Protruding, thicker portion of the lower side, 14 which bulges into the inner surface of the scapula.
p 1 Here 15 the lower edge or side of the scapula is made sharper and thereby protrudes further, so that the third of the muscles [m. subscapularis] that move the arm may more readily originate from here.
Q 1 Rough depression [margo lateralis] of the scapula’s lower side, from whence originates the inner muscle [m. triceps brachii, caput longum] of those that extend the forearm. R was accidentally left out.
S 2 Protruding part [tuberculum infraglenoidale] of the lower side near the outer surface of the scapula.
T 2 Depressed, wide area of the lower side, from which originates the third of the muscles [m. teres major] that move the arm.
V, V 2 Here the outer surface [fossa infraspinata] of the scapula is particularly concave because of the thickness of the lower side. 16 What lies between V, V and G, H is very thin and extremely fine and solid.
X 1 , 2 , 3 Epiphysis [margo medialis] of the base of the scapula, fused to the beginning of the spine itself.
Y 1 , 2 , 3 Epiphysis of the lower angle [angulus inferior] of the base of the scapula.
F 1 Portion of the upper angle that protrudes slightly into the inner region of the scapula.
Z 1 , 2 , 3 As previously stated, this marks the upper angle [angulus superior] of the base.
a 1 , 3 Semicircular foramen or depression [incisura scapulae] visible in the upper side of the scapula.
b, c 3 Area [fossa supraspinata] in the outer region of the scapula between the spine and the higher side of the scapula. Here b marks an extremely thin, slender, and somewhat transparent portion of the scapula, while c identifies the small foramen that often appears here, providing a path for the small vein to nourish the scapula at this point.

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Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 21 On the Scapuli