Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 19 On the Bones of the Thorax

Cartilaginous substance

The cartilage also does not present the same appearance everywhere. The cartilage of the lower ribs is softer; this is perhaps why many people say the false ribs are called xo/ndroj, or cartilage. 42 The cartilage of the upper ribs is harder and more solid, and in aged persons it becomes bony inside 43 as we discover it in sheep, cattle, and nearly all animals of this kind, whose cartilage is made of friable, white, fragile bone inside, wrapped externally in cartilage like a kind of membrane. This is so evident in apes and dogs that Galen said the cartilages of the true ribs are bony while in the false ribs they are pure cartilage. 44 In humans who are not quite advanced in years, the cartilage seems to have given way to a bony nature, while in dogs that are still young and in the animals which we just mentioned, it becomes quite bony. 45



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 19 On the Bones of the Thorax