Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 19 On the Bones of the Thorax

Symmetry of body among the Ligurians

Yet once in a lecture at Padua while I was discussing the passage of Aristotle just mentioned, I learned from the most promising youths (because of their unique knowledge of literature and civil law) Jacopo Nigro and Francesco Pinelli, 39 members of the Genoese nobility, that Ligurians of the highest rank had been called e(ptapleu/roi, 40 “seven-ribbed,” on ancient monuments, although these people are most distinguished for the excellent symmetry and proper number of their limbs, as they are energetic in battle on land and sea. There are therefore as a rule twelve ribs on each side; the seven upper ones are articulated to the pectoral bone and the vertebrae, as we shall state afterward, while the five lower ones are attached only to the vertebrae, and do not extend to the pectoral bone, but come to an end on the sides of the thorax and are joined to each other by the ends of their own cartilages (F in fig. 1) [cartilagines costales VIII et X], with the sole exception of the twelfth, which is far separated from the eleventh (H in figure 1) and nowhere comes in contact with it. This occurs not uncommonly with the eleventh as well, when it does not reach the cartilage of the tenth (G in fig. 1). Because they are not articulated with the pectoral bone, these five lower ribs are named by the Greeks nothai, which is to say spurious and illegitimate.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 19 On the Bones of the Thorax