Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 16 On the Vertebrae of the Thorax

The course of the transverse processes

The transverse processes of the neck vertebrae, like the nine upper thoracic, should in Galen’s view extend at a declining angle from the top down; but this angle is so obscure and slight as would scarcely seem worth mentioning. Yet if you have considered the transverse processes of the neck vertebrae in a more than perfunctory way, you will say that they face downward in their outward or posterior side (8, 10 in fig. 8, x in fig 10, ch. 15), while on their inward or anterior side (z in fig. 10, ch. 15), which is broader than the posterior, they tend upward. The transverse processes of the nine upper thoracic vertebrae, on the other hand, have their entire bodies carried more backward and upward than downward. Their upper part (L in fig. 1 and 2) is convex, the lower (M in fig. 1) concave and somewhat hollowed out, as if in this way the processes might suggest the appearance of a downward inclination. The transverse processes of the twelfth thoracic not only incline upward but are also brought backward to an unusual degree, just as the processes of the eleventh and tenth face slightly upward. The transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae (H in figs. 1, 2, 3, ch. 7) are quite obscurely brought upward, though the vertebra joined to the sacrum is a little more clearly seen to bring its processes upward. In dogs, 42 the transverse processes of the neck vertebrae quite conspicuously and clearly turn downward, while the processes of the thoracic vertebrae are either not turned downward or only slightly. The processes of the lumbar vertebrae slant markedly upward, 43 agreeing exactly with Galen’s descriptions 44 except for the number of vertebrae. For dogs and caudate monkeys have more lumbar vertebrae than humans, 45 who also as a rule have one less thoracic vertebra than dogs. This is the way the transverse and posterior processes of the thoracic vertebrae are constituted; those which we call ascending and descending (N, O in the fig. for ch. 14) are arranged in a series as follows.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 16 On the Vertebrae of the Thorax