Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 16 On the Vertebrae of the Thorax

The course of the spines

The spines of the nine upper thoracic vertebrae, like those of the neck, run clearly downward, heading from top to bottom. The spine of the tenth thoracic vertebra droops downward less than those above it, and is borne more straight back. The spine of the eleventh is more elevated, and the spine of the twelfth even more so. But none of these is so elevated that its point does not always tend more downward than upward; this applies also to the spines of all lumbar vertebrae, which face downward more then upward. This is to be understood in the human backbone; in dogs, apes, hares, and nearly all other quadrupeds the case is quite otherwise, squaring nicely with the views of Galen. 39 In these animals, the spine of the tenth thoracic vertebra runs neither downward nor upward, 40 and the two which lie immediately below the tenth have a spine whose tip faces obscurely upward, while the remaining vertebrae coming after these put out spines that extend upward from below. Quite otherwise, assuredly, the human, in whom no one will rightly claim that even a single vertebral spine inclines more upward than down. 41



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 16 On the Vertebrae of the Thorax