Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 16 On the Vertebrae of the Thorax

Key to the Four Present Figures and Their Letters

We have drawn here those of the twelve thoracic vertebrae which we thought sufficient to illustrate their description. The entire series of dorsal vertebrae [vertebrae thoracicae] is presented in the figure preceding the fourteenth chapter and again in the three representing the entire structure of the bones at the end of this book. The vertebrae of the thorax, along with the ribs which are articulated to them, are separately illustrated in the two first figures at the beginning of the nineteenth chapter. 1 The first figure of this chapter shows one of the middle thoracic vertebrae [vertebra thoracica V] in its anterior part; about ten upper thoracic vertebrae resemble it. 2

The second presents the same vertebra as is shown in the first, seen in its posterior face.

In the third is displayed the eleventh thoracic vertebra in its posterior face.

In the fourth we have illustrated the twelfth thoracic vertebra, also in its posterior face.



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A 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 In all the figures, A marks the superior part of the body [corpus vertebrae], by which it is joined to the vertebra above it. 3 Because the lower part closely matches the upper, it would have been unnecessary to draw a thoracic vertebra in its inferior aspect. F placed in the third figure marks the upper epiphysis 4 of the vertebral body, which generally remains after boiling and cleaning of the bones. 5
B 1 Middle of the depression [fovea costalis superior corporis vertebrae] which we shall state is common to two vertebral bodies, and to which the base of the rib [facies articularis capitis costae] is articulated.
C 1 Part of a depression [fovea costalis inferior] of this kind is carved in the lower surface of the vertebral body; it is smaller than the part marked B to the same degree as the common depression made for articulation of the rib belongs more to the vertebra below than to the one above.
D 3 Depression [fovea costalis] in the eleventh vertebra to which the eleventh rib of the right side is articulated.
E 4 Depression [fovea costalis] in the twelfth vertebra to which the twelfth rib of the right side is fitted.
F 4 A rough, deep depression [pediculus arcus vertebrae] from which comes the ligament [l. costotransversarium] connecting the twelfth rib to its vertebra.
G 2 , 3 , 4 Greater foramen 6 [f. vasculare] cut in the posterior surface of the vertebral body facing the dorsal medulla.
H and I 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 Transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae.
K 1 Depression [fovea costalis processus transversi] visible in the tip of the transverse process, to which a rib is articulated.
L 1 , 2 Portion of the transverse process which we shall state is gibbous.
M 1 Concave portion of the transverse process. 7 Because in the remaining three figures, which illustrate the posterior aspect of the vertebrae, the transverse processes are shown to be brought slightly downward, a large portion of the upper part is shown and the eye is not directed to the middle of the lower surface.
N, O, P 1 , 2 Spine or posterior process; in the second figure the upper surface [lamina arcus vertebrae] of the spine is illustrated, where N, O, and P mark three lines that together make a triangle. The interval between N and O is one upper surface, and the other interval, between N and P, is the other surface. The first figure marks the third surface of this process which is the lower, between O and P. The unshaded area seen next to N in the first figure is a portion of one of the upper surfaces.
Q 1 Line projecting in the third surface; it is rough and uneven.
R 3 Spine of the eleventh thoracic vertebra.
S 4 Spine of the twelfth thoracic vertebra.
T, V 1 Anterior surface of the ascending processes [p. articularis superior] of the thoracic vertebrae above the twelfth.
X, Y 2 , 3 Posterior surface of the ascending processes [p. articularis superior] of the thoracic vertebrae, where these processes swell out and are coated with cartilage.
a b 2 , 3 Outer surface of the descending processes [p. articularis inferior] of thoracic vertebrae.
c 1 Here is seen the anterior surface [fovea] of the right descending process [p. articularis inferior], which is concave and covered with cartilage; it receives the tubercule of the ascending process of the vertebra below. 8
e, f 4 Ascending processes of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, which go up into the eleventh vertebra.
g, h 4 Descending processes of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, which are articulated into the depressions of the ascending processes of the first lumbar vertebra.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 16 On the Vertebrae of the Thorax