Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 15 On the Vertebrae of the Neck or Cervix

Foramen of the transverse processes.

No vertebra of the human neck has so far come to my attention that did not possess a perforated transverse process. But I have frequently discovered processes of the seventh vertebra of dogs and apes lacking a foramen. 105 Only the neck vertebrae have such foramina, perforated to carry upward the vein and artery (s in the last fig. of Bk. 3) [arteria et vena vertebralis] which convey blood and spirit to the dorsal medulla and finally to the brain itself. The four additional vertebrae that immediately follow the the second have this special feature as well because their transverse processes 106 (y and z in figs. 8, 10 and nos. 7, 8, 9, 10 in fig. 9) 107 are wide and bifurcated; but they are not, like their spines, rough and uneven. The transverse processes resemble each other in shape, and their interior part is always wider and rises higher than the posterior. The form of the parts of the spine is different in nearly all the vertebrae, and they always protrude, and are rough, in various ways. The breadth and bifurcation of the transverse processes occurs for the same reason as it has previously been stated the spines are forked: for the origin and insertion of muscles [m. spinalis cervicis, m. semispinalis thoracis et cervicis] [mm. interspinales] [multifidus]. Besides the other muscles at this location, we shall write in the second book that two (one is marked C in the 8th table of muscles, the other N in the 14th) [m. scalenus medius] [m. scalenus posterior] are separately joined on each side to the transverse processes of the vertebrae; by their aid the neck (and afterward, by resultant motion, the head) are moved laterally. These muscles are so located on each side that one is assigned to the anterior part of the transverse processes [pp. transversi, tuberculum anterius] and the other to the posterior [pp. transversi, t. posterior]. The seventh vertebra of the neck puts out broad but quite obscurely bifurcated transverse processes; 108 for since they are broad and long, no necessity presses them also to be forked, particularly when the muscles pulling the neck to the side [m. semispinalis cervicis] [m. spinalis cervicis] [m. longissimus cervicis] are not as firmly joined to the seventh as to the other vertebrae, since this one lies beneath them as a kind of base in the stated motion of the neck and 109 is imperceptably moved laterally, like the vertebrae of the thorax.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 15 On the Vertebrae of the Neck or Cervix