Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 12 On The Foramina of the Head and the Upper Maxilla

Small foramina scattered throughout the skull cavity

Besides the foramina already mentioned, if you take a skull in your hands you will notice a large number of others (but small) carved out to carry veins and attach membranes. A number of this type are seen hard by the greater or inner angle of the eye socket next to the suture [s. frontolacrimalis, s. frontoethmoidalis] common to the second [os lacrimale] and third [os ethmoidale] bones of the upper maxilla and the frontal bone. These run into the cavity [sinus frontalis] between the plates of the frontal bone previously marked K. Their [foramina ethmoidalia] location is shown in the first figure of this chapter by T and V, letters by which we identified the above mentioned suture in its own place, and the bones mentioned are labeled there I, D, and Q. 91 Small foramina of this kind occur also in the frontal bone [foramen supraorbitale] near the eyebrows; likewise also in both bones of the nose, 92 which we counted the fifth [os nasale] of the upper maxilla. In addition, in the first bone [os zygomaticum] of the maxilla, which forms the outer angle of the eye socket, one or two foramina of this kind 93 are found. The sides [ala major] of the cuneiform bone [os sphenoidale], which with other bones [os temporale, pars squamosa] form the hollow of the temples, also possess such a foramen. In addition to these, beside the sagittal suture in the bones [os parietale] of the vertex, and particularly near the lambdoid suture, such foramina appear, whose locations are marked by a number of ∫’s [foramen parietale] hidden in the shading of the fourth figure. But besides those mentioned, one of a noteworthy size is on the inside of the frontal bone, where this bone is joined to the anterior part of the eighth bone [os ethmoidale] of the head, and the anterior part [lamina perpendicularis] of the septum of the sinuses of the olfactory organs is seen; this foramen [f. caecum] is visible between m and h of the third figure. It extends into the cavity [sinus frontalis] of the frontal bone, marked K at the top. Also, in the fourth bone of the upper maxilla, next to the large or inner angle of the eye socket, another foramen of this class presents itself. On the outer base of the cuneiform bone where it is joined to the nasal septum [vomer], five are often seen; and three, marked m, n, and c, stand behind, one on each side and the third between them: 94 these, extending forward like tiny passages, end in the nasal cavity; but the end of the middle foramen, marked n, rarely admits a bristle. Two others, which we have labeled ϖ and w [canalis palatovaginalis], begin more to the front and climb forward in a straight path, ending at the vertex and root of the eye socket. The ends of these foramina cannot readily be illustrated; therefore I urge you the more earnestly to learn them from human skulls rather than from bare pictures of bones: make conjectures about the location of each foramen from the letters on the page and consider at length whether some noteworthy foramen has escaped my attention. There remain still in the third and fourth figures some Greek capital letters which we used previously to label sutures of the skull; only W remains to be explained, by which certain cavities [foveolae granulares] in the vertex are marked: you will hear that the hard membrane [dura mater] of the brain (K in fig. 1, Bk. 7 95 ) is attached to these. 96 The arrangement of these cavities is not always the same; sometimes none are seen, sometimes a few, sometimes many and variable. These should especially be noted by those (if any are present) who are too quick to scorch this part of the vertex or too brashly and confidently drill holes in the fractures of the bones. 97 At this point I would also mention two hollows [sinus sphenoidales] in the cuneiform bone, placed like caves in its middle, had I not already described them


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in my account of this bone; similarly, the large hollows [sinus maxillares] placed in the fourth bones of the upper maxilla near the sides of the nasal cavity.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 12 On The Foramina of the Head and the Upper Maxilla