Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 12 On The Foramina of the Head and the Upper Maxilla

Skull cavities accommodating vessels of the hard membrane [sinus durae matris]

In the third figure (see also M, N, O, P in the fig. for ch. 14, Bk. 3; P, Q, R, S in fig. 7, Bk. 7, S, T in fig. 9, C in fig. 1, and B in fig. 2), close attention must be paid to the cavity inside the skull 85 where the cerebrum is contained, into which come the three foramina labeled c, f, and g, made to carry veins and arteries. From the foramen [f. jugulare] of the sixth pair of cerebral nerves [n. glossopharyngeus, n. vagus, n. accessorius], marked c, and the inner part of the foramen marked f, a cavity [sulcus sinus transversi et sulcus sinus sigmoidei] begins in the right and left sides of the skull, which we have marked h, h, h on the left [right] side and on the right [left] with three i’s. These sinuses [ss. durae matris] climb obliquely to the rear like the quarter part of a circle until the right joins the left, where we have placed a k [sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris]. The location of this meeting is seen in the middle of the occipital bone, which is midway between the highest point [lambda] of the lambdoid suture (D in fig. 3, ch. 6) and the posterior area of the foramen [f. magnum] that carries the dorsal medulla, marked e, and is marked k at the point [protuberantia occipitalis interna] where, in our account of that bone, we stated it is thickest and most dense. From this junction [sulcus sagittalis superioris] of two depressions [sulcus sinus transversi], another is carried straight up beneath the highest part of the lambdoid suture and under the entire sagittal suture [sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris]


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and the frontal bone to the septum of the olfactory organs marked (in a way) with h [sinus frontalis] in the third figure. 86

ll[ 4 ], m[ 3 ] The fourth figure has this depression [sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris] marked l a number of times, while the third marks it with the letter m on the frontal bone. These depressions are carved out for the hard cerebral membrane, whose vessels [sinus durae matris] recede into them 87 to avoid being crushed by the bones of the skull, as you will hear when I explain in the third book the array of cerebral vessels, which is no less elegant than difficult to follow, 88 and little attended to by other professors of anatomy.
n, o 2 Note the palate in the second 89 figure, where the large nasal foramina [choanae], divided by a septum [vomer] labeled x and extending from the nostrils into the space [meatus nasopharyngeus] of the throat, are marked n and o. Although these have many functions for man, they are believed especially suited for normal inhalation and for the voice.
p 2 This foramen [f. incisivum] near the back of the incisor teeth runs from the palate into the nasal cavity and is common to the fourth bones [maxillae] of the upper maxilla. It is single in humans, double in horses and dogs. It is made for the connection and meeting of the tunic [t. mucosa] covering the palate (beneath Z in fig. 2 preceding ch. 2, Bk. 4) with that which covers the nasal cavity (lower P in the same fig.). 90 A very small part of that tunic runs through it, together with a small vein and a small artery [v. palatina externa, a. palatina major].
q 2 At the end of the palate near the sixth bone [os palatinum, lamina horizontalis] of the upper maxilla, two foramina are seen on each side, one in front of the other, and larger. The first or anterior, marked l [foramen palatinum majus], is of a noteworthy size, proceeding up from the palate in a posterior direction to the vertex [fissura orbitalis superior] or root of the eye socket. It ends at the foramen [fissura orbitalis inferior] which we explained is one of those that drain phlegm into the nostrils and which we previously described under the letter F. The posterior foramen [ff. palatina minora] is labeled k, and it is quite small and ascending upward; sometimes it terminates in the same foramen as the anterior one marked l, but sometimes it has a terminus of its own in the suture [s. sphenomaxillaris] common to the cuneiform bone and the fourth bone of the upper maxilla.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 12 On The Foramina of the Head and the Upper Maxilla