Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 10 On The Lower Maxilla

Man has the shortest jaw

Of all animals, man has the shortest lower maxilla in proportion to the total size of his body, while the ass and the horse generally have the longest among quadrupeds. 5 For man has a round face, not long, as with the other animals which, because they have no hands, stoop to feed. 6 But it was fitting that a hard jaw be made for humans, as for the other animals, because it alone moves and undergoes a variety of very powerful motions in biting and chewing (the 6th table of muscles shows the maxilla cut through the middle). So that such a hard, solid jaw should not by its excessive weight overburden the muscles that move it, it forms hollows [canalis nutriens, canalis centralis, canalis perforans] and noteworthy cavities [cavitas medullaris] filled with marrow, and it is at the same time free of any epiphysis. These hollows are not carved out in the posterior part of the jaw as they are in quadrupeds, but are farther forward toward the region of the chin, and at the sides.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 10 On The Lower Maxilla