Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 9 On the Twelve Bones of the Upper Maxilla, Including the Bones of the Nose

Appendix A: 1555 version of the first two paragraphs of the narrative section

What part of the skull is called the upper maxilla

In our account of the bones, we call the upper maxilla that part of the skull which still remains to be described after the eight bones of the head that together make up the area where the brain is contained and the two ossicles of the organ of hearing [malleus et incus] on each side. It makes up the lower part and sides of the eye sockets, the large cavity of the nostrils, the upper nasal region, and the palate, and it includes the upper row of teeth.

Why it consists of many bones, both light and hollow

We believe it is constructed not of a single bone but of several so that it may be made readier to resist injuries and sustain harm with less inconvenience, since damage to some part of it is limited by the boundary of that part and will not extend throughout the maxilla as through an earthen vessel. But there is still another reason for the number of bones, that being the variety of areas which do not everywhere produce bones equally dense, hard, thick, or soft. Though it consists chiefly of hard bones, they are quite light; for outside the cavity of the nostrils which they form, the bones are quite hollow inside near the sides of this cavity, and they contain such conspicuous hollows that you might well compare the composition of the upper maxilla to figurines which we pour from wax and are hollow inside. 55 The result is necessarily a special and unusual lightness for such a large mass which does not weigh down the head and is also wonderfully suited for voice production. 56



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 9 On the Twelve Bones of the Upper Maxilla, Including the Bones of the Nose