Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 9 On the Twelve Bones of the Upper Maxilla, Including the Bones of the Nose

The second maxillary bone

The second bone (D in fig. 1) [os lacrimale] of the maxilla, far smaller than all the others and thin like a scale, is located in the inner angle [angulus oculi medialis] of the eye socket where there is a foramen [fossa sacci lacrimalis] (C in fig. 1) in front of which is a caruncle [caruncula lacrimalis] that occupies the inner angle of the eye. This is said to have been created to prevent any phlegm purged from the brain into the eye sockets from flowing down onto the cheeks, but instead to fall completely through this foramen [ductus nasolacrimalis] into the space of the nostrils. This ossicle [os lacrimale] is terminated in its upper portion [crista lacrimalis] by a short interval of suture [sutura frontolacrimalis et sutura frontomaxillaris] (from V to X in fig. 1) that distinguishes the frontal bone from the upper maxilla; it is therefore by this suture that this ossicle is joined to the frontal bone. From this suture, a second one [sutura ethmoidolacrimalis] (in fig. 1 from V downward beside D and c, and from there up again to X) descends along the posterior side of the ossicle, runs along the bottom of the ossicle, and ascends upward along its anterior side finally to the same suture which we said separates the frontal bone from the upper maxilla. The suture which is brought in this manner almost in a circle from the suture just mentioned separating the frontal bone from the maxilla, is common in its [os lacrimale] posterior region (towards the cone of the eye socket) to the second maxillary bone and that which we call the third [os ethmoidale]. At the ossicle’s lower end and along its anterior side, this suture connects it to the fourth bone [maxilla] of the upper maxilla. On its upper end, this ossicle meets the frontal bone, on its posterior the third maxillary bone, on its lower and anterior end the fourth maxillary bone. Because this ossicle is loosely attached, and is joined at its anterior end to the fourth bone by a harmonia [sutura plana] rather than by a suture and is itself quite thin, it rarely occurs in skulls dug from the earth; because it is placed in this damp location, it easily decays and readily falls off because of its extremely loose connection. But in boiled heads and in those skilfully prepared for instruction on the bones, it is carefully preserved.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 9 On the Twelve Bones of the Upper Maxilla, Including the Bones of the Nose