Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 9 On the Twelve Bones of the Upper Maxilla, Including the Bones of the Nose

Index of the First Figure of the Ninth Chapter, and Its Characters


This figure 1 represents the anterior surface of the skull so as to display the bones of the upper maxilla as accurately as possible. We have placed a canine skull below the human so that Galen’s description of the bones of the upper maxilla may be more easily understood by anyone. Also, so that the sockets of the eyes and the bones and sutures appearing within may be seen as well as possible, it was useful for the human skull to rest on its occiput and for its anterior portion [regiones ventrales] to be raised above the dog’s skull. I shall arrange the legend of this figure so that the Greek capitals may be applied first to the bones of the upper maxilla (of which there are six on each side); they will all then be used as chance dictates for the remaining bones and sutures. The first few letters will help to identify the foramina of the head: it will be convenient to set them aside for the chapter devoted to these foramina. These are letters A to I.

I, I The frontal bone, I, is also placed in the eye sockets [orbita], marking that part of the frontal bone which constitutes the upper region of the eye sockets.
K Left vertex bone [os parietale].
L Left temporal bone.
M Left mammillary process [processus mastoideus ossis temporalis], next to which is the stylus-like process [processus styloideus].
N Cuneiform bone [os sphenoidale, ala major] marked in the hollow of the left temple [fossa temporalis] and inside the right eye socket. G and H in the left eye socket mark the same bone [ala major], though these letters will serve especially to mark the foramina 2 at this location. Another N [lamina lateralis processus pterygoidei] is placed next to the innermost tooth [dens molaris III] of the left side, marking a small portion of the cuneiform bone and the suture [sutura sphenomaxillaris] dividing it from the upper maxilla at this point.
G, G We shall count this the first bone [os zygomaticum] of the upper maxilla; the G inside the eye socket marks the portion [facies orbitalis] of this bone visible therein. The edges of this bone are marked a, b, Q, R, and P, which I shall explain severally in the appropriate places. 3
D This appears only in the left eye socket, indicating the second bone [os lacrimale] of the upper maxilla; it is bordered by the suture next to the letters D and C that goes around it in a kind of circle, marked after a fashion by X, V, c [sutura frontolacrimalis, s. ethmoidolacrimalis, s. lacrimomaxillaris]. 4
Q Also occurring only in the left eye socket, this marks the third bone [lamina orbitalis ossis ethmoidalis] of the upper maxilla, which is delimited by V, T, c, and d [sutura fronto-ethmoidalis, s. spheno-ethmoidalis, s. ethmoidomaxillaris]. 5


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L, L Fourth bone [maxilla] of the upper maxilla. The L in the eye socket marks the part [corpus maxillae] of this bone that makes up most of the lower region of the eye socket. The L there [fissura orbitalis inferior] also marks the beginning of the foramen [foramen infra-orbitale] that is labeled B in the cheeks. This bone is circumscribed by the letters h, g, e, Y, X, c, d, b, D, a, and N in this first figure, and in addition by e, u, t, and y in the following figure. 6
C Fifth bone [os nasale] of the upper maxilla. One C marks the bone on the right side, the other on the left; you will see this practice observed in the other letters. 7
P This letter appears in the second figure of this chapter, marking the sixth bone [lamina horizontalis ossis palatini] of the upper maxilla. The mate of the sixth bone, the matching bone on the other side, will be marked with the same letter. 8
O Septum of the nostrils, considered to be a process [lamina perpendicularis] of the eighth bone [os ethmoidale] of the head, perforated like a seive. 9 Having now explained these letters, we have distinguished the bones appearing in the present figure.
P Suture [sutura temporozygomatica] joining the two bony processes [os zygomaticum, processus temporalis et os temporale, processus zygomaticus] from which the cheekbone [arcus zygomaticus] is formed.
Q The line from Q to S marks the suture [sutura sphenozygomatica] dividing the cuneiform bone [os sphenoidale] from the first bone [os zygomaticum] of the upper maxilla, here visible in the eye socket and rather clearer in the socket of the right eye by the letter Q [os zygomaticum, facies orbitalis] than in the left eye socket. In the third and fourth figures preceding the sixth chapter, this suture is marked d 10 in the hollows of the temples.
R, S, T, V, X, Y, and Z Suture dividing the frontal bone from the upper maxilla and the cuneiform. The portion from R to S marks the part of the suture common to the frontal bone and the first bone [os zygomaticum] of the maxilla; it is seen in the hollow of the temple [fossa temporalis] in the third figure of the sixth chapter, extending there from b to the b next to it. 11 In the present figure, the interval from S to T marks the part of this suture common to the frontal bone from the cuneiform; T to V measures the portion common to the third maxillary bone [os ethmoidale] and the frontal bone. V to X is the portion of this suture common to the frontal bone and the second maxillary bone [os lacrimale], X to Y is the portion common to the fourth maxillary bone [maxilla] and the frontal bone, while Y to Z is the portion common to the frontal bone and the fifth maxillary bone [os nasale].
a The rough and uneven surface of the maxilla where the first maxillary bone meets the fourth. A suture [sutura zygomaticomaxillaris] is marked from a to b that is common to those bones, visible on the anterior surface of the skull. A portion of it which is hidden in the hollow of the temple is best looked for in the fourth figure preceding chapter six, under the letter f in the hollow of the temple. 12
b Part of the suture [sutura zygomaticomaxillaris] dividing the first bone from the fourth 13 is marked from b to Q, seen in the eye socket. It is clearer here in the eye socket on the left, which is occupied by fewer letters.
c The suture [sutura ethmoidolacrimalis] running from V to c is common to the second and third bones. Whatever runs upward next to C and D to X separates the second bone from the fourth.
d This letter helps to delineate the third maxillary bone. T to V [sutura fronto-ethmoidalis] describes this bone’s superior surface, V to c its anterior, T to d [sutura spheno-ethmoidalis] its posterior, where it meets the cuneiform bone. c to d [sutura ethmoidomaxillaris] circumscribes the bone’s inferior portion, next to the fourth maxillary bone.
e The suture [sutura nasomaxillaris] running from e to Y is common to the fourth and fifth maxillary bones.
f From f to Z marks the suture [sutura internasalis] common to the fifth bone of one side and the fifth bone of the other.
g This is placed in the space of the nostrils, marking the suture [sutura vomeromaxillaris] by which the nasal septum [vomer] is separated from the fourth bones [corpus maxillae] of the upper maxilla.
h The suture [sutura intermaxillaris], or rather the harmonia [sutura plana], common to the fourth bones of the upper maxilla, by which they are separated in the region of the upper lip.
i Near the upper edge of the foramen marked B [foramen infra-orbitale], i is placed to mark the suture of the fourth bone running above that foramen; it is peculiar to the fourth bone alone. 14 In the illustration of the human skull being explained here, nothing else is marked by a letter, and nothing else remains to be told. The following key will be accounted peculiar to the dog’s skull, as follows. 15
k Suture [sutura zygomaticomaxillaris] from the cheeks upward to the middle of the eye socket [aditus orbitalis, margo infra-orbitalis], ascending in the lower region of the eyes to l. 16
l, m The line from l to m marks the suture rising to the brows [supercilia] next to the inner angle (canthus) of the eye socket [aditus orbitalis, margo medialis].
n From the suture that runs around the outside of the nasal bones [sutura nasomaxillaris], the suture [sutura maxillo-incisiva] marked n runs between the canine tooth and the incisor next to it. It would have been possible to occupy this skull with more letters, had I not believed that for the present the human maxilla would present the reader with enough to do. 17



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Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 9 On the Twelve Bones of the Upper Maxilla, Including the Bones of the Nose