Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 6 On the Eight Bones of the Head and the Sutures Connecting Them

FIGURE LEGEND OF THE THIRD AND FOURTH FIGURES

This figure legend is common to the third and the fourth figures, since nearly the same characters appear in both; where one appears only in the third or the fourth, I shall add a subscript 3 or 4 to the character listed.

A, B[ 3 , 4 ] Coronal or anterior suture [sutura coronalis] of those which run transversely. In Figure 3, B and A mark the middle [and extremity] of the coronal suture on the left side; in Figure 4, the right side is shown. 5
C, D[ 3 , 4 ] Posterior suture of the transverse sutures [sutura lambdoidea], resembling the Greek capital lambda (L). The left portion of this suture is seen in the third figure, the right in the fourth. The third of the figures representing the entire structure of the bones shows at B the full area in which this is altogether like a true suture. Its extensions running through the base of the head, to be illustrated in the fifth and sixth figures below, are another matter. 6
E 3 Suture [sutura sagittalis] running from the middle of the lambda-shaped suture to the middle of the coronal suture, from D [lambda] to B [bregma].
F[ 3 , 4 ] Squamous adhesion [sutura squamosa] or agglutination; 7 the left is shown in the third figure, the right one in the fourth.
G[ 3 , 4 ] 8 In both figures an interval of adhesion [sutura parietomastoidea] is marked from C to G, extending from the lambdoid suture to the true squamous adhesion, which shows a construction not of plates lying upon each other, but a genuine suture.
H[ 3 , 4 ] The part that extends from G to H through F is a squamous adhesion common to the vertex [os parietale] and the temporal bone. A squamous adhesion is also shown from H to A, common to the vertex and the frontal bone.
I 3 Left bone of the vertex [os parietale sinister].
K[ 3 , 4 ] Right bone of the vertex [os parietale dexter].
L[ 3 , 4 ] Frontal bone [os frontale], which is a single bone.
M[ 3 , 4 ] Occiput [os occipitale], likewise a single bone.
N[ 3 , 4 ] The left temporal bone [os temporale, pars squamosa] is shown in the third figure, the right in the fourth.
O[ 3 , 4 ] Bone compared by professors of dissection to a wedge [ala major ossis sphenoidalis], which we more often call by the briefer name (with apologies to those who care only about names) cuneiform. This is single, without a mate. 9
P[ 3 , 4 ] This specifically identifies the processes [processus pterygoidei] of this bone [os sphenoidale], which we shall compare to the wings of bats. There are two [lamina lateralis, lamina medialis] on each side, visible in the fourth figure and marked, besides P, with the numbers 2 , 3 , 4 , and 5 . The fifth figure of this chapter will show them more clearly.


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QQQ[ 3 , 4 ] This will be the first [os zygomaticum] of the bones of the upper maxilla, here designated with several Q’s to avoid confusion with d [ 3 , 4 ] [ala major ossis sphenoidalis, facies temporalis], which is nearby. The line between the two Q’s, marked with an asterisk [ 3 , 4 ], marks the process [margo temporalis] of this bone which greatly increases the cavity carved in the temple.
RRR[ 3 , 4 ] Slight roughness [linea temporalis superior] in the frontal bone and the vertex, from which the temporal muscle takes its semicircular origin.
SS[ 3 , 4 ] Fourth bone [maxilla] of the upper maxilla: the left in the third figure, the right in the fourth. T was left out by accident.
V, X 3 Part of the skull which we call the jugal bone and will describe in the next chapter. Here V [sic: X] marks the process [processus zygomaticus] of the temporal bone (N) brought out to form the jugal bone. X [sic: V] is the process [processus temporalis] of the first bone of the upper maxilla (Q).
Z 3 Suture [sutura zygomatiotemporalis] joining the processes just named from which the jugal bone is constructed.
V, X 4 The points in the fourth figure from which we have cut those processes with a saw. 10
a a[ 3 , 4 ] Portion of the suture [sutura sphenosquamosa] surrounding the cuneiform bone [os sphenoidale], common to this bone and the temporal bone.
b[ 3 , 4 ] Portion of the suture [sutura sphenofrontalis] around the cuneiform bone, common to this bone and the frontal bone.
c 4 This part of the cuneiform bone sometimes appears as a separate ossicle, 11 thin like a scale and separated from the cuneiform bone by a line which we have marked q3[ 4 ], but it does not appear very often.
e[ 3 , 4 ] Portion [fissura pterygomaxillaris] of the suture around the cuneiform bone [os sphenoidale, processus pterygoideus], common to this bone and the largest bone [maxilla] of the upper maxilla (S).
f f 4 In the fourth figure you see f, serving no purpose for the present chapter; it marks the suture [sutura zygomaticomaxillaris] common to the bones marked Q and S; we shall deal with it together with the other sutures of the upper maxilla. I mention it here in passing because I have cut away the jugal bone in the fourth figure so it can be seen. 12
gg[ 3 , 4 ] Suture [sutura frontozygomatica] separating the frontal bone from the cuneiform and the upper maxilla.
h 4 Socket [fossa mandibularis] in which the head of the lower maxilla is articulated.
i[ 3 , 4 ] Process of the temporal bone, jutting out like a writer’s stylus [processus styloideus].
k[ 3 , 4 ] Mammillary process [processus mastoideus] extending from the temporal bone. In the fourth figure, k marks the process on each side.
l l 4 Heads [condyli occipitales] of the occipital bone, which are articulated to the sockets of the first cervical vertebra. A foramen [foramen magnum] stands between them, hollowed out for the dorsal medulla. But since we have not set out to discuss the foramina of the bones in the present chapter, we have decided they need not be marked with letters.
F 4 The letter F [fissura pterygomaxillaris et fossa pterygopalatina], however, is placed only in Figure 4, to which you may refer from the twelfth chapter on the foramina.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 6 On the Eight Bones of the Head and the Sutures Connecting Them