Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 4 On the Structural Relationships of Bones

Gomphosis

The first of these is called gomphosis, and it occurs when bone is fixed in bone like a nail. By it, every tooth (insert the set of teeth marked A, A in the figure for ch. 11 into fig. 4, ch. 6) is driven into the sockets [alveoli dentis] in the maxillae [maxilla et mandibula] so much like a nail that it cannot be moved even the slightest bit. The ancients sometimes compared a nail-like connection also to a joint, but for another reason, when they stated that bones are fitted together for the benefit of another bone as if by the intervention of a kind of nail — as Aristotle affirms when he writes that two hollow bones have a nail (clavus) between them, believing that the tibia and the calcaneus have a cavity [sulcus] (consider how in the three skeletons W is between F and a; or compare the figs. of ch. 31 with those of ch. 33), and that the talus enters those cavities [facies articularis inferior] with its own protrusions [trochlea tali] like a nail, as if two posts were fastened with the same spike. 43 In Chapter 33 the nature of the talus will be explained; its connection [articulatio talocruralis] to the tibia and the calcaneus is articulated by ginglymus in both men and quadrupeds. For humans are not without a talus, though it differs in shape (but not location) from that of single-hoofed and cloven-footed animals. 44 For in all it lies beneath the tibia and is articulated to the calcaneus, or what takes the place of a calcaneus. The femoral bone, as much in birds as in horses, pigs, and other quadrupeds, deceived Aristotle and Galen in the third book of De usu partium, 45 because in those the femur is not as easy to see as in humans; as I shall say in the appropriate place, Aristotle in his book De communi gressu animalium [De incessu animalium] 46 wrongly handed these things on to posterity because the femur and humerus in quadrupeds and birds was unknown to him.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 4 On the Structural Relationships of Bones