PLAN OF THE CONNECTIONS THAT JOIN BONES
The bones of the human body are joined to each other by structures
- Produce motion
- Manifest and evident motion, like that of the articulation of
the femur in the hip bone
[articulatio coxae], the first
vertebra with the second
mediana], the ulna with the humerus
This connection is what professors of anatomy call diarthrosis
- Motion that is obscure and difficult to see, like that of the
talus with the navicular bone, the tarsus with the metatarsal bones, and the
talus with the calx
[articulatio subtalaris]. This
structure is called synarthrosis.
- These joints [A and B] are put together by
- enarthrosis, by which the head of the femur is articulated
into the acetabulum of the hip bone, and the head of the talus into the
acetabulum of the navicular bone.
- arthrodia, by which the first vertebra is joined to the
and the tarsus to the metatarsal bones
[articulatio plana], as on
- ginglymus, by which the ulna is connected with the the
humero-ulnaris] and the calcaneus with the talus by mutual entry
- Have absolutely no motion, and are made by
- gomphosis; in this type of construction, the teeth are
fixed in the maxillae like nails.
- suture, by which many bones of the head and many bones of
the upper maxilla
are put together in the
manner of a serrated fastening.
[sutura plana]; by this
kind we see compacted together, among others, the bones of the nose like simple
- symphysis, by which the lower bones of the chest come
harmoniously together, and the epiphyses with their respective bones.
All of the above are joined
- With the aid of some other part:
- By a ligament, as in all connections of bones which are capable
of voluntary motion. This kind of joint is called synarthrosis.
- By flesh, as in all connections of bones surrounded by muscles.
Also, the teeth are seen to be held in their alveolae as if by benefit of
flesh. This we call syssarcosis.
- By cartilage; this is how the bones of the pubis are knit
[symphysis], and, in the
young, the lower bones of the chest
[synchondrosis]. Also, in
earliest youth the epiphyses are attached to their bones
[diaphyses] by a glue-like
[cartilago hyalina]. This
connection is called synchondrosis.
- With the benefit of no part. In older persons we see epiphyses
fused in this way to their respective bones. All sutures, like all harmonies,
adhere without the aid of any substance.
By these varieties of joints, then, the bones are connected to each