Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified

Ko/nduloj or Condyle

Latin writers translate ko/nduloj now joint, now node, now hump, now head, now capitulum, now digital bones, because they recognize that it is quite variously understood by the Greeks. In the treatise of Galen just mentioned, the heads of the limbs are seen to be called by that name. In De anatomicis administrationibus he so names the two lower heads of the femur [condylus medialis, c. lateralis] and the lower tubercules or heads of the humerus [condylus humeri], exactly as if twin heads of bones were called by that name. Hippocrates introduces the same usage into his book De articulis 52 where he says that a dislocated shoulder can be restored by the ko/nduloi, that is by the joints of the fingers. It is reasonable that the bones of the fingers should have been so named by some because they have twin heads (G and H in figure 2, Chapter 27), like the lower end of the femur. 53 This is particularly true of the first bones of the four digits [phalanx proximalis], which in the treatment of a dislocation are chiefly what moves the humerus outward and then up. 54 In addition, Galen in the first


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book of De motu musculorum 55 calls the low capitulum of a bone a ko/nduloj when he compares a kefalh/ or head to a kotu/lh, acetabulum or deep recess; ko/nduloj, by comparison, is a low, very slightly protruding or flat capitulum, and glh/nh 56 is what we call a recess, so lightly carved in the bone that you can scarcely distinguish whether it is a recess or a capitulum. This is the way the name ko/nduloj was no doubt established by the first professors of dissection; but I shall in the meantime take the simple precaution of seeing to it that this word does not create any obscurity in my discourse, since it is no less easy to call the inner or outer head of the femur next to the knee “an imperceptably and slightly protruding capitulum” than to bring ambiguous language such as “condyle” or “node” or the like into my text. Likewise in the description of each bone we will consistently establish that name for ourselves. In our subsequent account of the muscles, veins, arteries, and other parts of the body, we shall never depart from it. 57



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified