Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified

Types of head

The heads which swell out in the manner just described are of a simple or single type in certain bones, as in the femur where it is articulated with the hip and in the metatarsal and metacarpal bones, where they meet the first digital bones. Others are of a double or twin variety, divided by a gap, as on the femur [fossa intercondylaris] where it meets the tibia and in the first and second digital bones at the lower end 48 where they enter the cavity of the next bone. Other heads appear round, like the upper head of the femur; others are drawn out farther from the right side to the left and thus become rather broad, like the heads [processus condylaris, caput mandibulae] of the lower maxilla. Still others are stretched from front to back, like the heads [condyli occipitales] of the occipital bone that enter the depressions [massa lateralis atlantis, facies articularis superior] of the first vertebra. But although the shapes and varities of such heads are as worth knowing by a physician worthy of the name as one’s own fingernails, if only for the sake of dislocations, at this point I did not think them worth subdividing at greater length because I will try to describe them individually in the greatest detail when I describe each bone. 49 The heads of bones are more than once called e)pifu/seij by Galen, perhaps because many of them are made up of an epiphysis, as is the head of the femur, the upper head of the humerus, and the heads of the metatarsal and metacarpal bones where they are held in by the first digital bones. But many heads of bones are not made of an epiphysis: the talus is completely lacking in epiphysis, and likewise the humerus [condylus humeri] where it is joined to the forearm. 50 Also, the lower maxilla puts out heads [processus condylaris] but not epiphyses. Hence the words of Galen are not altogether authoritative where he taught that the heads of the kw/la or limbs are called e)pifu/seij and kondu/loi. 51



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified