Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified

Kefalh/, kefa/laion: the head; prominences and depressions of the head.

Kefalh/ and kefa/laion are explained by Latin writers as the head. They apply this term to the swelling portion of a bone entering the hollow of another bone for articulation and voluntary motion. We also call the head prominent or low when judging it by its cervix: the head of the femur is called prominent where it is fitted into the hollow [acetabulum] of the hip because a long distance extends from its neck to its tip. Likewise we consider the head of the humerus where it is joined to the scapula [cavitas genoidalis] a prominent head because in its most projecting part it extends far beyond the cervix or neck. The heads 45 of the metatarsal bones (q, q in illustration of the foot), which are attached to the bones of the tarsus, are so depressed and flat that you could scarcely say whether they enter the cavities of the tarsal bones or receive tubercules of them. It is also impossible to distinguish heads from depressions in the connection of the three bones [ossa cuneiformes] of the tarsus with the bone resembling a small boat [os naviculare] (compare s, t, and u in figure 13, Chapter 33 with n, m, and l in figure 10). We will later point out that capitula (d in fig. 9, ch. 13; X, Y in the figs. for ch. 16) of this kind occur in most of the vertebrae. For the present it suffices to add that the Greeks, in their ardent enthusiasm for the works of Nature, gave the name “prominent heads” to points which display an obvious swelling, and which stand out in a circular shape or swell in their middle rather than their sides. Low parts (depressa) is what they called parts having so obscure a swelling or lump that it is unclear whether they should be called a head or a hollow. Experts at dissection seem to have called these last heads kondu/loi, 46 “condyles,” and the former simply kefa/laia, “heads.” We shall presently add some remarks about the condylus (since this name is so variously employed by many writers).



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified