Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified

Varieties of processes and epiphyses

There are several varieties of processes, as there are of epiphyses. Certain processes have an epiphysis attached: the femoral processes called rotators [trochanter minor et major] (S in figures A and B) and the spine of the scapula (which is a process of the scapula) have epiphises; so also the interior process [p. coracoideus] of the scapula, which looks like an anchor. 37 There are no epiphyses on the other processes: they very rarely occur in the processes of the lower maxilla, the calcaneus, 38 the talus, and the other spongy bones, except as the processes of those bones too are spongy. To the processes of the humerus [epicondylus medialis, e. lateralis] that are near the joint of the forearm no epiphyses are attached; likewise the processes of the ulna [processus coronoideus, olecranon] which articulate with the humerus. 39 On the other hand, epiphyses usually provide themselves with processes. The epiphysis of the ulna (R in figures 1 and 2, Chapter 24) [processus styloideus] has a process which experts at dissection have compared to a pillar or a pen with which we write; there is a process, which we call the inner malleolus, on the epiphysis of the lower bone of the tibia [malleolus medialis] (i in figure 3, Chapter 31). Furthermore, the upper epiphysis of the metatarsal bone that supports the little toe puts out a process [tuberositas ossis metatarsalis quinti] (X in the foot illustration), into which it will be shown is inserted the eighth of the muscles [m. peroneus brevis] that move the foot. The epiphysis of the humerus [condylus humeri], 40 and likewise the lowest epiphysis of the femur, are divided into two processes [condylus medialis et lateralis] so prominent that you hear it said they should be called separate heads. And so the parts that we are about to explain as head, neck, cavity, tubercule, and brow are comparable to epiphyses and processes. However, the name of process is better applied only to those which are not articulated to another bone. We therefore do not call the heads of the femur and the humerus processes, nor the acute processes of the lower maxilla or the tubercules of the humerus, which jut out near the sides of the elbow joint. Further, we think it will be more convenient to call processes that have epiphyses simply processes, not epiphyses. We shall call the rotators 41 of the femur [trochanter major et minor] and the processes of the scapula and vertebrae processes, even if they have epiphyses, following the practice of other anatomists (who often confuse e)pi/fusij with a)po/fusij). 42 We will never make reference to the process of an epiphysis simply as a process without adding the name of the epiphysis; we shall say, for example, that the inner malleolus [malleolus medialis] is a process “of the lower tibia,” an epiphysis. But all of this is incidental to an understanding of the names and will be presented in descriptions of the bones, just as also the function of the processes as well will come out more clearly with reference to individual bones.



Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified