Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified


In the table above, a number of bones are illustrated only to show suitably, at least in a few bones, the parts and areas of bones whose names I shall discuss in this chapter. 1 If in this chapter mention is made of a bone not illustrated here, you should look for it among the illustrations belonging to its own chapter, or in the plates appended to the end of the first Book. However, there is no need in the description of each part and seat to study all the bones that I will bring in as examples, as it shall be quite sufficient to consider the example that is given here in one bone and to remember the name when it occurs elsewhere. 2 The following key will explain the bones illustrated here. 3

A Right femur; we have removed the epiphyses from their seat and removed them a certain distance from the remaining bone.
B Right femur, with epiphyses still attached to their seats.
C Lower maxilla [mandibula], with the lower row of teeth.

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D Here is represented on its outer surface the bone [os coxae] articulated to the right side of the sacrum; following Galen, we have given it no other special name 4 but include it under three names according to its parts, namely the ilium, hip [ischium], and pubis; we shall describe it in the twenty-ninth Chapter. 5 Under the bone just mentioned and the lower maxilla, the bones of the right foot are seen in such a way that the four bones of the tarsus, marked 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 , 6 with the bone resembling a small boat [os naviculare], marked E , the talus, marked F , and the calx [calcaneus], marked G , are so removed from the five metatarsal bones marked I , II , III , IIII , and V , and from the bones of the digits [phalanges] shown as H and H , that the place can be seen where the bones of the metatarsus are joined to those of the tarsus. By this means the depressions [facies articulares] introduced only into the surface and the slightly protuberant heads are suitably shown.
I The bone of the arm or humerus is beneath the foot, showing its anterior surface.
K Portion of the scapula of the back, drawn to show its spine with the epiphysis of the acromion marked with lines [sulci], and fashioned of various parts. These are the bones represented by the present table; the remaining characters help to show the parts of the bones as follows.
L Four L’s 7 on the femur marked A show the four epiphyses 8 of the femur.
M Four M’s on the other femur mark the four epiphyses of the femur; lines [epiphysial lines] show the edges by which they are separated, so to speak, from the femur.
N N The upper N [tuberculum iliacum], on the bone marked D attached to the side of the sacrum, shows the epiphysis of the iliac bone. The lower N shows the epiphysis [tuber ischiadicum] of the hip bone.
O You see this letter on several metatarsal bones, marked I, III, and V, on the first and second bones of the big toe [phalanx proximalis, phalanx distalis] and the first and second bones of the middle toe [phalanx proximalis, phalanx media], indicating epiphyses [tuberositates] on these bones; this is not to say that they occur only on the bones so marked, but a few characters will show well enough that the same applies to similar bones. 9
P Epiphysis [tuberculum minus] 10 of the humerus.
Q Epiphysis of the spine of the scapula, or acromion. 11
R Lines 12 situated between several portions of the epiphysis of the spine of the scapula.
S On each femur we have written two S’s, marking the processes [trochanter major et minor] of the femur.
T Acute process [coronoideus] of the lower maxilla, also known as the korw/nh. 13
V V Two processes [spina iliaca anterior inferior, spina ischiadica] in the bone attached to either side of the sacrum.
X Process [tuberositas ossis metatarsalis quinti] of the upper epiphysis of the metatarsal bone marked V, leading to the little toe.
Y Y Two processes or tubercles [epicondylus lateralis, e. medialis] of the lower end of the humerus, where it is articulated to the bones of the forearm.
a Placed three times on each of the femurs, showing the three heads [epiphyses] of the femur. In the first femur, marked A, we have placed a on the highest epiphysis [caput femoris]. In the femur marked B, it is outside the epiphysis, lest someone think that the head articulated to the hip is nothing more than an epiphysis. 14
b Right head [processus condylaris] of the lower maxilla [mandibula].
c Head of the talus, entering the depression of the navicular bone.
d Head [trochlea] of the talus, which is also marked F, entering the socket of the tibia. 15
e Appearing several times in the drawing of the foot, e marks the heads of the metatarsal and digital bones.
f Upper head of the humerus, which is articulated to the scapula. 16
g g Two lower heads [capitulum, trochlea] of the humerus, or rather the seats to which the ulna and the radius are articulated.
h h Printed once on each femur, h shows the neck [collum femoris] of the head which is inserted into the hip bone.
i Neck [collum] on the lower maxilla [mandibula].
k Neck [collum] on the talus.
l l Necks of the metatarsal bones, printed only on II and IIII so as not to obscure the others. 17
m Neck [collum chirurgicum] on the humerus.
n Acetabulum in the hip bone, to which the femur is articulated.
o Acetabulum [fossa coronoidea] in the humerus, lying between the two Y’s. 18
p p p Shallow recesses [facies articulares], seen in the bones of the tarsus.
q q Barely swelling tubercles [bases ossis metatarsalis] of the metatarsal bones; we have written q on only two of them because the others would be hidden in the shading, and would also have interfered with the picture. 19
r r Brows [limbus acetabuli] on the hip bone, visible near the upper part of the acetabulum. If it is desired to view these parts or areas of the bones also among the cartilages, the illustrations at the head of Chapter 38 will show all that are visible in the cartilages.

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Difficult as the description of things is made by the multitude and varied usage of terms by other writers and often by the same writer, still no collection of language is as complicated and contradictory as the names by which the parts and areas of the bones are designated and must continually be used in the description of bones. In order now to put off until the next chapter various terms by which the bones of a joint are designated as a series of connectors, a number of terms just now come to mind: kw=lon, e)pi/fusij, a)po/fusij, korw/nh, korwni/j, kefalh/, kefa/laion, a)/rqron, ko/nduloj, tra/xhloj, au)xh/n, kotu/lh, kotulhdw/n, o)cu/bafon, glh/nh, i/)tuoj, o)fruoj, a)/mbonoj, xei/lh, baqmi/doj, and very many other words of this kind, which are words of the Greeks. 20 As for the Latins, though they had only a few separate names, nevertheless, through the prodigality of translators, so many myriads of names are everywhere under foot that now as each separate Greek name comes up for use, it must be added what the ancients, who taught boys at home a system of careful dissection, understood these words to mean. Finally, it must be decided what terminology we too are to use throughout our text.

Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them] | Chapter 3 Names by which the Parts and Surfaces of Bones are Identified