Footnote 57:

Paraphrased from Galen, De anatomicis administrandis 2.280 ff.: “For [my predecessors], it was superfluous to compose memoranda for themselves or others since they practiced dissection from childhood under parential instruction, as they did reading and writing. . . . In time, however, the art came to be customarily imparted not only to kinsmen but to those outside the family. Thus the habit of dissection from early years came to be discontinued. For when Art was communicated to [any] favored adult, it followed that the instruction became the poorer. . . . Hence the Art, being no longer exclusive to the Asclepiad family, was ever degenerating from one generation to the next. Thus, too, arose a demand for memoranda to preserve knowledge.” (tr. Singer 1956). For the tradition that medical training passed from father to son, see Plato Laws 720b5 kaqa/per . . . au)toi/ te memaqh/kasin ou(/tw tou/j te au(tw=n dida/skousi pai=daj, “just as [physicians] themselves learned, so they teach their own sons.” The author of the ancient Life of Hippocrates says he was taught by his father, and the so-called “Hippocratic oath” (on which see Edelstein 1967, pp. 3-63) included an undertaking by the physician “to give a share of precepts and oral instruction to my sons.” See I.M. Drabkin 1944, 333-351, Kollesch 1979, and F. Kudlien in O’Malley 1970, pp. 3-37.