Footnote 3:

The “logical,” also known as the rationalist or dogmatic sect, emphasized the role of theory in the investigation of health, disease, and physiology. But as von Staden notes, “ ‘rationalist’ or ‘dogmatic’ is in fact a classificatory factotum applied to many post-Hippocratic physicians who have in common only that they did not confine themselves to observation and passive experience, but also tried to develop the theoretical and more speculative branches of medicine such as physiology and pathology” ( 1989, 58f.). The Empiricists, a Hellenistic school of thought founded ca. 250 BC by Herophilus’ student Philinus, rejected theoretical postulates as irrelevant to actual therapy and relied upon direct observation as the only reliable guide in treating the sick. The Methodists, a sect that was particularly successful in the Roman world beginning in the first century AD, advocated a practical medicine entirely free of anatomy, physiology, or symptomology; its simple rules, they claimed, could be mastered in as little as six months. Both Empiric and Methodist sects had close ties to Skeptic philosophy. See “The Methodists” and “Empiricism and Skepticism in the teaching of the Greek Empiricist School” in Edelstein 1967, 173-203, and Mudry & Pigeaud 1991.