Vesalius here and a few lines later Latinizes surgery (<Gk. xeirourgi/a), working by hand (xei/r), to manus opera, work of the hand (cf. the Latinization near the end of this preface of microcosmus to paruus mundus in the 1555 edition). But a translation of manus opera as “surgery” is not completely satisfactory, since the term covers all sorts of physical manipulation as well as surgical procedures, as is evident from Vesalius’ reference a few lines later to Hippocratic works on fractures and dislocations. The point of Vesalius’ argument is that the portion of medical science which requires a knowledge of anatomy has been neglected. On another level, he is addressing here and throughout the Fabrica a deep-seated distaste for what many physicians regarded as degrading manual labor. Throughout the Fabrica, Vesalius’ acceptance of surgery proper contrasts with a distaste for it that goes back to antiquity. Vesalius’ emphasis on the work of the hand draws a sharp distinction between the traditional focus on authorities and texts and a new focus on experience and practice that links him to Paracelsus and his followers.