Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them]



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Index of Characters placed on the three figures representing the entire skeleton 1
The same characters are generally inscribed on each of the three preceding figures 2 (which I call the complete figures), though if one of them is peculiar to only one figure it will readily be noticed from the number which I shall now append to each character in the Index, where for the most part I have endeavored simply to write the names of the bones, 3 placing first those which I chiefly use in the main body of my text, then the Greek names, and after that the Latin names (if there are any others) accepted by the most approved authors, so that the order of names here will have some significance. Hebrew names will follow these, but also a few that are still Arabic, almost all taken from a Hebrew translation of Avicenna with the aid of a prominent physician and close friend of mine, Lazarus Hebraeus de Frigeis (with whom I am accustomed to work on Avicenna). 4 I thought it proper to add a Latin transliteration to those names, because most of them occur in Arabic books translated into Latin. 5 Similarly, other words that occur often in Latin translations of the Arabic will for good reason be placed next, along with names which are read in the scholastic doctors (as they love to be called) and in the medical handbooks of our time. These are no less carefully to be considered than names received from the Latin authors. Bone is called o)ste/on by the Greeks, os by the Latins, and by the Hebrews םצע, hezem. Cartilage is xo/ndroj, םיסוחשח hascechusim. It will be convenient for us to begin the names of the bones with those of the head or skull, which the Greeks call kra/nion, ko/gxoj, ku/toj, kwdei/a, skafi/on. Many call the entire area of the bones of the head that surround the brain, made of eight bones, 6 calva, cerebri galea, and the like. Others so name only the area covered with hair. Its circle is called stefa/nh and peri/dromoj; חומה קית tkek hamoah, חומה תרדק chederath hamoach, theca “case” and olla “jar” of the head, testa “shell” of the head, and scutella “pan” of the head, asoan.
The sutures with which the bones of the head are joined together are generally called r(afai/, םיכלש scelavim, senan, direzan, adoren, complosa 7 “clapped together.”
A 2 , 3 Coronal suture, stefaniai/a; ילילכח hachlilii, ייתשק chascthii, arcualis “arcuate,” sutura puppis. 8
B 2 , 3 The suture [sutura lambdoidea] resembling the Greek capital L, lambdoeidh/j, and u(yiloeidh/j from its resemblance to the upsilon; יידמל lambdii; laude, hypsili, sutura prorae. 9
C 3 Sagittal suture, o)bolai/a, r(abdoeidh/j. Suture running along the longitude of the head like a shaft, spit, or rod. ייצח checii, יידופש scefodii. Called nervalis especially when joined to the coronal suture; the place [bregma] is called zeudech, particularly by Mesuë. 10
D 2 , 3 This joint [sutura squamosa], not resembling a true suture, is named with its mate the sutures joined to each other like scales, lepidoeidei=j krotafi/ai, temporal, squamiform, םייפלק chelaphiim, cortical, mendosae (false) sutures. The remaining sutures of the skull 11 do not have their own names. As they are such, I need not return to them again at greater length.
a 2 , 3 This bone [os parietale], together with its mate, is called the bone of the vertex, and likewise of the bre/gma 12 or korufh/. There are some who call them “the bones of the synciput.” דקדקה םצע hezem hachodchod; nervalia, paria, arcualia; others call them iugalia and parietal bones, a name by which some call the temporal bones. The bones of reason or cogitation.
b 1 , 2 , 3 Frontal bone, metw/pon, called by some the bone of the synciput; חצמה םצע hezem hamezzech, the coronal, os puppis of the head, the os inverecundum “shameless bone,” the bone of common sense.
g 2 , 3 Bone of the occiput [os occipitale] or occipitium, i)ni/on, 13 ףרועה םצע hezem hahoreph; laude os, pyxis bone, 14 prow bone, memory bone. There are some who also call it the basilar bone 15 (because it makes up a large portion of the head), even though this name is elsewhere given to the cuneiform bone [os sphenoidale].
d 2 , 3 This bone [os temporale] and its mate are the bones of the temples, krotafw=n, korsw=n, korrw=n lepidoeidh=. Some also call them “stone-like”: 16 liqoeidh/, lapidea, lapidosa. םיעדצה hazedahim, םיינזאה תומצע azzamoth haauniim. Bone of the ears, even though the name could be applied to the two ossicles [ossicula auditoria] going into the construction of the organ of hearing, marked q; and * on the pedestal upon which the second figure rests its elbows, where q; [incus] marks the ossicle like an anvil or a molar, and * [malleus] the one that we compare to a little hammer or femoral bone. Since these ossicles were unknown to ancient professors of anatomy, it is little wonder that they are also lacking in names. The bones of the temples are called by some those of the tympae, the mendosa or “false” bones, parietal, the hard or armalia bones.
e 2 Process [processus styloideus] in the temporal bone resembling a stylus or needle: stuloeidh/j, grafoeidh/j, belonoeidh/j, plh=ktron, calcar capitis. ץחרמ ומכ chemo marhezz. os calaminum “reed-like bone,” saggitale, clavale, acuale.


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z 1 , 2 , 3 Process [p. mastoideus] of the temporal bone resembling the nipple of a breast: mastoeidh/j, mamillaris, יימטפ םצע hezem potmii.
E 2 , 3 Bone [os sphenoidale, ala major] compared to a wedge, sfhnoeidh/j; it is defined by Galen kata\ th\n u(perw/an o)stou=n 17 (even though it scarcely touches the palate), polu/morfon. Cuneiform bone 18 of the palate, basillare (though they also so name the occipital bone), 19 חומה בשומ moscau hamoach. Baxillare, paxillum, os colatorii, os cribratum, cavilla — though they call the talus the same thing.
h 2 Area of the skull which we call stony, lapidosa [os temporale, pars petrosa].
q 2 Processes of the sphenoid bone resembling bats’ wings, pterugoeidei=j, ייפנכ םצע hezzem chenaphii. 20
F 1 , 2 , 3 This area [arcus zygomaticus, commonly named the zygoma], and its mate on the other side, is called the jugal bones: zugw/mata, zugoeidh=, zugw/dh. 21 גוזה חומצע hazamoth hazogh. “Bones of a pair” and paria are names they also assign to the bones of the temples: “handles of the temporal bones,” [pars squamosa, processus zygomaticus] arcualia ossa. 22 We have written no character on the twelve bones of the upper maxilla 23 because they lack separate names, though the septum of the nostrils [vomer] is called by some the os cristae. 24 Also, the upper maxilla [maxilla] is called ge/nuj 25 and mandibula, ןוילעה יחלה halechi hahelion.
G 1 , 2 , 3 These names are also given to the lower maxilla [mandibula], marked G in the three figures, which the translator of Haly Abbas specifically names the throat, faux. 26 As a rule sixteen teeth, o)do/ntoj, םיינש scinaiim, are affixed in each jaw, of which the four middle or anterior ones are called incisorii [dentes incisivi]; tomei=j, dixasth=rej, kte/nej, gelasi=noi, risorii or “laughing” teeth, quaterii; םיכתחמ hamechatechim, quadrupli. They 27 call the two middle teeth by themselves the duales. The tooth closest to the incisors on each side is called the caninus or “dog” tooth; there are therefore two canines [dentes canini] in each jaw; kuno/dontej; תועתלמ וא םייבלכ chelauiim or metalehoth; “the biting teeth,” mordentes; some also have called these risorii or “laughing” teeth. The five following these on each side are called “grinders,” molares; 28 mule/tai, go/mfoi; molares, maxillares, paxillares; 29 Cicero 30 and others call genuini those that generally grow after puberty; by the Greeks, they are called swfronisth/rej, krath=rej, oyi/gonoi; by our people they are called teeth of sense and wisdom 31 and cayseles. דיאוגנ naghuid; neguegidi, nanged, alhalm. The Hebrews call the molars תונחוט tochanoh.
H 2 Bone resembling u [os hyoideum]. 32 u(oeide/j, u(yiloeide/j, lamdoeidh/j, parasta/th, faru/ngetron; Letter resembling u or L. ידמל וא ימאל םצע hezem lhami or lamdii. Bone of the tongue, bone of the throat, os laudis, bone of Adam’s bite (os morsus Adam). In his chapter “On the Throat,” the translator of Avicenna 33 has “the Alfaic bone, having four sides, two below [cornua majora], two above [cornua minora]; it is not casually to be viewed by the student of anatomy.”
I, K, L, M, N[ 1 , 2 , 3 ] The spine is marked by these characters, generally visible in all three figures; it is called r(axi/j, a)/kanqa, nw=ton, 34 spina, tergum, hominis carina or “human keel,” הרדש scidra. It is constructed of many veretbrae, spondu/loi, 35 תוילוח chulioth. They are formed of verticulae, bones which put forth an acute process [p. spinosus] in their posterior which is called a)/kanqa, Siminea, adsenascem, senasem. From I to K marks the neck [vertebrae cervicales]; tra/xuloj, 36 au)xh/n, collum; ןורג וא ראוצ zauor or gharron. Tenon athlas is a name that others apply only to the seventh vertebra of the neck. From K to L signifies the vertebrae of the thorax, qw/rac; sometimes the nw=toj, meta/frenon, pectus, and occasionally simply the dorsum. הזח chaze, interscapilium. From L to M, the vertebrae of the loins [vertebrae lumbales]: o)sfu=j, i)cu/j, of the yoiw=n 37 or renes. םינתמ mothnaim, alchatin. From M to N, the sacrum [vertebrae sacrales] is represented: i(ero/n, platu/; latum, תעבטה יפ םצע hezen pi hatabahath; lumbare, bones of the buttocks, bones of the clavi; alagas, agit, abhans, abhaum, vetula, os amium, os anum, 38 are names given by others to the coccyx. The coccyx bone is marked N: ko/kkuc, spondu/lion, o)rropu/gion. הצע haaze; tail- or caudal bone, alhosos, and other names which we have given to the sacrum according to the opinions of translators.
O 1 , 2 , 3 Pectoral bone [sternum], 39 ste/rnon. Some call the upper part of the bone by this name, and then name the lower sth=qoj. הזחה םצע hezem hehace; thorax, asser, cossos, 40 shield of the heart. 41
P 1 , 2 , 3 Pointed cartilage [processus xiphoideus] of the breast, similar to a sword. cifoeidh/j, ensiformis. ברח ילדב םצע hezem bedelii rachauch; ינורג gheroni, ירגנחלא alchangri, names given to the pectoral bone as a whole. Pomegranate, ensifoidis, cultralis, epiglottal cartilage, shield, buckler of the mouth of the gullet, middle of the lower fork.
1, 2, 3, etc.[ 1 , 2 , 3 ] In the three figures, the twelve ribs of the thorax, true and genuine [costae verae] as well as false and spurious [costae spuriae], 42 are marked 1, 2, 3, etc. to 12. pleurai/, תועלצ zelahoth.
Q 1 , 2 , 3 Clavicles, klei=dej, claves, iugula. There are those who also call them the humeri. םכש scechem. “Little forks,” furculae, or taken separately the furculae inferiores, which they distinguish in that way from the lower part of the pectoral bone. 43
R 1 , 2 , 3 Scapula; w=)moj, w)mopla/th, e)pino/tion, pla/th. The scapula is also often called the humerus, scoptulum opertum, scoptula by the Latins. ףתכ chatheph. Also spatula, clypeus, and shield of the chest, scutum pectoris.
l [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] In all three figures, l identifies the superior process [acromion] of the scapula, which we usually call the shoulder top, summus humerus; it is called a)kro/mion, or sometimes by Hippocrates tou= a)kromi/ou o)ste/on, and by Galen also korakoeidh/j. 44 םוטרח וסרגא agrasso 45 chartom,ברועה יפ pi hahoreuh. “Pig’s snout,” rostrum porcinum; head of the scapula; alacharam, manchar, algorab, destructum.
m [ 1 ] The inner or lower process [p. coracoideus] of the scapula, marked m in the first figure,


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is called a)gkuroeidh/j, and sometimes by Galen korakoeidh/j, sigmoeidh/j. 46 Anchor-shaped, process resembling the letter C. ףתכה ןיע haiin hacateph. Eye of the scapula, the name also used for the spine of the scapula.
S 1 , 2 , 3 Humerus or bone of the brachium, braxi/wn. Brachium, and some call it the ulna. עורזה הנק chane hazeroha, דצע hazad. Small brachium, support of the brachium, reed of the brachium, aseth.
T, V 1 , 2 , 3 This whole area is called the cubitus [regio cubitalis anterior et posterior]: ph=xuj, w)le/nh, w)/lenoj. 47 Cubitus and ulna are names given also to the lower bone of this region.ןידנז zandin, עורז zeroha, םידומע יתש scete hamudim. Asaid, aseid, alsahad.
X 1 , 2 , 3 Upper bone in the forearm, called by us the radius. kerki/j, ןוילעה דומע hamud haelion. Lesser focile of the brachium, canna, lesser arundo 48 of the brachium.
Y 1 , 2 , 3 Bone of the lower forearm, called by us the ulna, having the same names as the entire forearm. Paraph/xion, 49 ןותחתה דומע hamud hatachthon. Greater focile of the brachium, canna, greater and lower arundo of the brachium.
n 2 The Greeks call the process [olecranon] of the ulna, marked n in the second figure, w)le/kranon, ku/biton, a)gkw=na; some of the Latins call it Gibber, “the hump.” 50 Additamentum necatum, the “suppressed addition.”
c 1 , 2 The process [ulna, p. styloideus] marked c, resembling a stylus, stuloeidh/j.
Z, Z 1 , 2 , 3 Brachiale [ossa carpi], karpo/j; to some, the palma. גסר rasegh. Rascha, raseta, ascam, ossa rasete.
G 1 , 2 Postbrachiale [ossa metacarpi]: metaka/rpion, a)/ndrwn, sth=qoj, ktei/j, to very many palma, pectus manus “breast of the hand,” pecten “comb.” דיה ףכ קרסמ masrech chaph haiad; alselanuat.
D,D 1 , 2 Digits [phalanges], da/ktuloi, תועבצא hezbahoth. 51
Q 1 , 2 , 3 Bones [os coxae] attached to the sides of the sacrum; there is one on each side, divided by professors of anatomy into three areas (though it is continuous).
o 1 , 2 , 3 The first is marked o, called the os ilium: lago/nej, לסכה סצע hezem hachesel. Alharta, anchae, sometimes lumbare.
ϖ 1 , 2 , 3 The second, middle area, labeled ϖ, is called the hipbone [ischium], coxendicis os, i)sxi/on.ךריה םצע hezem haiarech, coxae os, names by which many call the entire bone. 52 Althauorat, pixis os, femoris os, but altogether wrongly.
r 1 , 2 , 3 The third, anterior region, marked r, is called the os pubis: h(/bh, pecten. הורעח יבג gabe haherua, אנאעלא helhaua. Bone of the penis, shameful bone, fenestrated bone, one which they 53 often call the femoral bone. The entire bone is called הורעח בג תומצע hazamoth ghau haherua by the Hebrews.
j 1 , 2 , 3 Joint of the pubic bones; specifically, the cartilage [discus interpubicus] that comes between the union of these bones is marked here.
L 1 , 2 , 3 Femur or femoris os, femen: mhro/n.ךריה דחפ pachad, haiarech. Os coxae, coxa, agis, anchae os. 54
t 1 , 2 , 3 Outer process [trochanter major] of the femur, often called the rotator and the natis, “buttock,” troxanth\r me/gaj, glouto/j; malum granatum testiculorum “pomegranate of the testicles,” tharuca, greater trachametra.
u 1 , 3 The lesser, interior process [trochanter minor] is marked u.
C 1 , 2 , 3 Patella: mu/lh, e)pimuli/j, mulakru/j, ko/gxh, ko/gxoj, e)pigonati/j. Mola, scutiform bone, rotula of the knee. הבוכראה ןגמ וא ןיע hayn or maghen haharcuba. Eye of the knee, polus, adaicon, rasga, alrasafe, aresfatu.
P, S 1 , 2 , 3 This entire part is called crus by Celsus but ske/loj by Galen, whatever extends from the hipbone or the very loins to the ends of the toes: the thigh, lower leg, and the foot itself. 55 The separate part delimited by P and S is the tibia 56 , knh/mh [“shank”], קוש scoch.
F 1 , 2 , 3 The greater and outer 57 bone [tibia] is also known by these names; we generally call it the os tibiae. It is called proknh/mion and sometimes a)ntiknh/mion, לודגה הנק chanehagadol. Greater focile, arundo, and greater or domestic canna of the leg.
Y 1 , 2 , 3 The outer, thinner bone marked Y and called by us the fibula, is named pero/nh, paraknh/mion. Sura,ןטקה הנק chane hachaton. Lesser focile, canna, and lesser arundo of the leg.
f, x 1 , 2 , 3 58 Malleoli, sfura/, pe/za, misnamed tali by some Latin authors, םינקה ינשמ םיטלובה תווצק יתש sete chezzauoth haboletim miscene hachanim. Claviculae, cavillae, cahabin. f identifies the inner [medialis] malleolus, x the outer [lateralis]. 59
W 1 , 2 , 3 Talus, a)stra/galoj, a)/strioj, is wrongly called malleolus by some Latin translators, perhaps misled in this by the opinion of some who are not anatomists and maintain that h( sfu/ra means malleus, but in the neuter, ta\ sfura/, means instead the tali. Ballistae os, 60 cavilla, chahab, alsochi. לוסרקה hacharsul, םוקרע haarcchom.
a 2 , 3 Heel, calx [calcaneus]; kalka/neoj, calcis os. בקע haacheu. Alrip, calcar pedis.
b 1 , 2 Bone resembling a boat or skiff, skafoeide/j. Navicular, naviforme .הנטק הניפס וא הושה םצע hezem hascaue or sephinachotena.
c, c 1 , 2 , 3 This part of the foot composed of four bones is generally called by us, and by the Greeks, the tarsus. גסר rasegh. Raseta of the foot and bones of the raseta of the foot.
d, e, f 1 , 2 , 3 The three inner tarsal bones, 61 marked d, e, f, are separately called by some the xalkoeidh=.
g 1 , 2 , 3 The outermost, marked g, we call the bone [os cuboideum] resembling a cube or tessera: kuboeide/j, polu/morfon, cubiform, quadratum. ידרכ chardii,דרפנ םצע hezem nipirat. Grandinosum, 62 nerdi.
h, h 1 , 2 , 3 Pedio/n; planta, planum, vestigium, sole [metatarsalia]; meta/tarsoj, sth=qoj. Pectus and pecten. לגרה קרסמ masrech hareghel. Alselameet.
i, i 1 , 2 , 3 Digits [phalanges] of the foot.
k 1 , 2 , 3 Sesamoid ossicles 63 are marked by the letter K. shsamoeidh=; תאינימסתלח helthesaminiath. Alsemseminiae.

Book One -- The things that sustain and support the entire body, and what braces and attaches them all. [the bones and the ligaments that interconnect them]